Background: We conducted a prospective cohort study of HIV-positive men aged 18–35 years in Kisumu, Kenya to determine if medical circumcision of ART-naive HIV-positive men leads to increased viral load and penile viral shedding. Methods: From 108 HIV-positive men circumcised by forceps-guided method and followed up weekly for 6 weeks, 29 men were evaluated for penile viral shedding. HIV-1 RNA was measured in plasma from 19 men and in penile lavage samples from 29 men. Samples were collected before circumcision and at weekly intervals for 6 weeks or until the circumcision wound was healed. CD4+ T-cell counts from 102 HIV-positive men were determined at baseline and at 2 weeks thereafter.
Author Archives: JAIDS
Background: Sharing of needles and syringes and unprotected sex remain a common practice among people who inject drugs (PWID) in India and are important drivers of new HIV infections. Whether engagement in risk behaviors among PWID is associated with symptoms of common mental disorders in India is unknown. Methods: We analyzed the data collected in April and May of 2012 from a community-based sample of 420 PWID in Delhi using time location sampling. Self-report symptom scales were used to measure the severity of symptoms of depression (Patient Health Questionnaire 9) and anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale 2) within the preceding 2 weeks. We assessed the presence of suicidal thoughts within the past 12 months.
Objectives: To examine how social networks influence HIV risk among US racial/ethnic minority men who have sex with men (MSM) and whether the associations of social network characteristics with risk vary by race/ethnicity. Methods: A chain-referral sample of 403 African American, 393 Asian/Pacific Islander, and 400 Latino MSM recruited in Los Angeles County, California, completed a questionnaire, which asked about their egocentric social networks, safer sex peer norms, and male anal intercourse partners. HIV-nonconcordant partnerships were those reported by respondents as serodisconcordant or where self and/or partner serostatus was unknown. Results: Overall, 26% of the sample reported HIV-nonconcordant unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with a nonprimary male partner in the previous 6 months. In a generalized estimating equation (GEE) logistic model that controlled for race/ethnicity, age, nativity, incarceration history, and HIV status, being in a more dense network was associated with less HIV-nonconcordant UAI [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.86 to 0.99, P = 0.0467]
Objectives: To describe 5-year growth, survival, and long-term safety among children exposed to nevirapine or zidovudine in an African perinatal prevention trial, HIVNET 012. Methods: All study children who were alive at the age 18 months were eligible for an extended follow-up study. Children whose families consented were enrolled and evaluated every 6 months from 24 to 60 months. At each visit, history, physical examination, and growth measures were taken. From these measurements, Z scores based on World Health Organization (WHO) standards were computed
Background: HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections may increase interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP). However, relationships between inflammatory biomarkers, chronic viral infections, clinical factors, and behavioral factors remain poorly understood. Methods: Using linear regression, we modeled cross-sectional associations between loge IL-6 or loge CRP levels and HCV, HIV, injection drug use, and comorbidity among 1191 injection drug users. Results: Mean age was 47 years, 46.0% reported currently injecting drugs, 59.0% were HCV monoinfected, and 27% were HCV/HIV coinfected. In multivariable models, higher loge IL-6 was associated with HCV monoinfection [β = 0.191, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.043 to 0.339] and HCV/HIV coinfection (β = 0.394, 95% CI: 0.214 to 0.574).
Objective: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is routinely recommended in HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) aged ≤26 years. Levels of previous HPV exposure in older HIV-positive MSM are assumed to be too high to warrant routine HPV vaccination. However, little is known about the prevalence of and risk factors for neutralizing antibody seropositivity to HPV-16 or HPV-18, a key measure of previous exposure to these types. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of baseline visit for 296 HIV-positive MSM participating in a prospective cohort study of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions at a university-based research clinic.
Background: Alcohol consumption may affect the course of HIV infection and/or antiretroviral therapy (ART). The authors investigated the association between self-reported alcohol consumption and HIV surrogate markers in both treated and untreated individuals. Design: Prospective cohort study. Methods: Over a 7-year period, the authors analyzed 2 groups of individuals in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study: (1) ART-naïve individuals remaining off ART and (2) individuals initiating first ART. For individuals initiating first ART, time-dependent Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association between alcohol consumption, virological failure, and ART interruption
Background: Gaining understanding of the period before antiretroviral therapy (ART) is needed to improve treatment outcomes and to reduce HIV transmission. This study describes the cascade of enrollment in HIV care, pre-ART follow-up, and predictors of mortality and lost to follow-up (LTFU) before ART initiation. Methods: We conducted a cohort study among HIV-infected adult patients not yet started on ART in 4 HIV Sub-Saharan African programs. Patient follow-up began at enrollment and ended at the earliest of death, transfer-out, ART initiation, last visit date, or 60 months postenrollment. Risk factors for death and LTFU were investigated during the periods 0–6 and 6–60 months.
Objective: To use electronic drug monitoring to determine if adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) changes over time, whether changes are linear, and how the declines vary by study. Design: We conducted a longitudinal study of pooled data from 11 different studies of HIV-infected adults using ART. The main outcome was ART adherence (percent of prescribed doses taken) measured by electronic drug monitoring. We modeled and compared changes in adherence over time using repeated measures linear mixed effects models and generalized additive mixed models (GAMMs). Indicator variables were used to examine the impact of individual studies, and the variation across studies was evaluated using study-specific parameter estimates calculated by using interaction terms of study and time
Objective: To examine whether baseline clinical genotypes are equivalent to diagnostic serum genotypes for surveillance of HIV transmitted drug resistance (TDR). Design: Current HIV TDR surveillance in Canada is conducted through genotyping remnant diagnostic sera from new HIV diagnoses. As part of routine care, baseline genotyping is now conducted on all newly diagnosed HIV infections, with TDR data being generated a second time on the same patients. Methods: Surveillance genotyping, on HIV diagnostic serum, was performed on newly diagnosed HIV cases from 2007 to 2010 in Alberta, Canada. All subjects with a baseline clinical genotype result on file, and no evidence of antiretroviral therapy, were studied further
Objective: To assess the ability of the cirrhosis risk score (CRS) to predict liver fibrosis progression in HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected patients. Design: Retrospective follow-up study. Methods: Based on a minimum follow-up time of 10 years with HCV infection, 190 HIV/HCV-coinfected patients were classified according to their METAVIR score: (1) 25 nonprogressor patients who did not develop fibrosis (F0) and (2) 165 progressor patients who developed fibrosis (F ≥ 1). Seven polymorphisms of CRS signature and IL28B genotype were performed using the GoldenGate assay. The CRS signature was calculated by naive Bayes formula as previously described
Objective: Microbial translocation has been suggested to be a driver of immune activation and inflammation. It is hypothesized that microbial translocation may be related to dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and the risk of coronary heart disease in HIV-infected individuals. Design: Cross-sectional study of 60 HIV-infected patients on combination antiretroviral therapy with viral suppression >2 years and 31 healthy age-matched controls. Methods: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was analyzed by limulus amebocyte lysate colorimetric assay. Lipids, including cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and triglycerides, were measured
Abstract: HIV transmission is common within men who have sex with men (MSM) couples; despite recommendations that MSM who engage in risky sexual behaviors get tested biannually/annually, little is known about the testing patterns of MSM while in a current primary relationship. This study compared demographic and relationship characteristics of groups of MSM with different testing patterns while in their primary relationships and assessed which factors were associated with regular or irregular testing. Two hundred seventy-five HIV-negative male couples/550 MSM were recruited online to complete a survey in 2011. Since the start of their relationship, 21% of MSM tested for HIV every 3, 4, or 6 months; 29% tested once a year; 30% tested only when they felt at risk for HIV; and 20% never tested for HIV. Bivariate analyses indicated that men who had never been tested while in their relationship were younger, less educated, had greater trust in their partner, and were less likely to be in a couple that had 1 or both men having had sex with someone else
Objective: We investigated the current success of early HIV detection in Australia and the likely effectiveness of Treatment as Prevention. Methods: HIV diagnoses data from the Australian National HIV/AIDS Registry were analyzed for CD4+ T-cell counts at diagnosis and for prior HIV testing. Mathematical modeling based on these data estimated future HIV prevalence and incidence under different scenarios of antiretroviral therapy (ART) usage. Results: CD4+ T-cell counts significantly decreased with age (P < 0.0001) for men who have sex with men (MSM) and women in all HIV diagnoses, and for diagnoses at primary HIV infection (P < 0.02). This decrease with age meant that >50% of MSM aged 29 years and older are diagnosed with a CD4+ T-cell count <500 cells per cubic millimeters