Author Archives: Lancet Global Health

[Articles] How Ethiopia achieved Millennium Development Goal 4 through multisectoral…

The reduction of under-5 mortality in Ethiopia was the result of combined activities in health, nutrition, and non-health sectors. However, Ethiopia still has high neonatal and maternal morbidity and mortality from preventable causes and an unfinished agenda in reducing inequalities, improving coverage of effective interventions, and strengthening multisectoral partnerships for further progress.

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[Articles] Catastrophic costs potentially averted by tuberculosis control in India and South…

Aggressive expansion of tuberculosis services in India and South Africa could lessen, although not eliminate, the catastrophic financial burden on affected households.

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[Articles] Modifiers of the effect of maternal multiple micronutrient supplementation on…

Antenatal multiple micronutrient supplements improved survival for female neonates and provided greater birth-outcome benefits for infants born to undernourished and anaemic pregnant women. Early initiation in pregnancy and high adherence to multiple micronutrient supplements also provided greater overall benefits. Studies should now aim to elucidate the mechanisms accounting for differences in the effect of antenatal multiple micronutrient supplements on infant health by maternal nutrition status and sex.

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[Correspondence] Reframing non-communicable diseases – Authors’ reply

Lavanya Vijayasingham and Pascale Allotey suggest a conceptual extension of the socially transmitted condition (STC) framework to emphasise the role of social factors not only in predisposing individuals to the development of these diseases, but also in shaping the disease course and lived experience. Their reasoning is borne by evidence that socioeconomic factors correlate with STC behavioural risk factors,1 prevalence rates,2 and risk of premature death.3

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[Correspondence] Reframing non-communicable diseases

In reframing non-communicable diseases (NCDs) as socially transmitted conditions bound by common upstream drivers, Luke Allen and Andrea Feigl (July, 2017),1 suggest a strong focus on the causative aspects of social context. We suggest a conceptual extension: if social factors drive the prevalence of these conditions, then social factors drive their lived consequences and course.

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[Articles] Global causes of blindness and distance vision impairment 1990–2020: a systematic…

The number of people affected by the common causes of vision loss has increased substantially as the population increases and ages. Preventable vision loss due to cataract (reversible with surgery) and refractive error (reversible with spectacle correction) continue to cause most cases of blindness and moderate or severe vision impairment in adults aged 50 years and older. A large scale-up of eye care provision to cope with the increasing numbers is needed to address avoidable vision loss.

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[Comment] Global causes of vision loss in 2015: are we on track to achieve the Vision 2020…

Vision impairment, including blindness, is a major public health concern in middle-aged and elderly adults worldwide, associated with diminished quality of life and increased risk of falls and death.1,2 Estimates suggest that 36 million people were blind and 217 million people had moderate or severe vision impairment worldwide in 2015.3 The Global Action Plan for 2014–19 adopted by WHO member states sets a global target of a 25% reduction in the prevalence of avoidable vision loss due to cataract and uncorrected refractive error by 2019 from the 2010 baseline level.

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[Comment] Lessons for the Sustainable Development Goals from Ethiopia’s success: the case of…

Low-income countries face many health and development challenges. In response to these challenges, world leaders have taken counter action and formulated the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), one of which (MDG4) was to reduce the mortality of children younger than 5 years by two-thirds by 2015. In Ethiopia, under-5 mortality was 166 deaths per 1000 livebirths in 2000,1 one of the highest in the world. However, by 2016, after 15 years of successful effort, under-5 mortality had decreased to 67 deaths per 1000 livebirths.

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[Comment] Mitigating the financial effects of tuberculosis requires more than expansion of…

Reducing poverty and health inequality remains a global imperative, enshrined in the United Nation’s Sustainable Development Goals. Irrespective of country of origin or residence, poorer people have increased likelihood of ill health, malnutrition, and limited access to health care.1 Few diseases better illustrate the association between health and wealth than tuberculosis, which is the archetypal disease of poverty.

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[Comment] Effect of male circumcision on risk of sexually transmitted infections and cervical…

Current scientific evidence demonstrates compellingly that male circumcision confers a lifetime of medical and health benefits to men.1 Are there also any benefits for women who have a male sexual partner who is circumcised?

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[Comment] Antenatal multiple micronutrient supplementation: benefits beyond iron-folic acid…

Multiple micronutrient deficiencies remain a major public health concern in low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC). Infants, young children, and women of reproductive age are especially vulnerable. Pregnancy places an additional burden on women’s micronutrient status, as nutrient needs increase to meet the demands of both the mother and the developing fetus.1 Maternal micronutrient malnutrition during pregnancy can permanently affect physiological development of the fetus, which can increase the risk of morbidity, mortality, poor growth, and neurocognitive development later in life.

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[Comment] Preventing tuberculosis in people with HIV—no more excuses

In 2014, tuberculosis eclipsed HIV as the leading infectious killer on earth and it remains the foremost cause of death for people with HIV infection. The risk of tuberculosis doubles after HIV is acquired, skyrockets with falling CD4 counts, and remains substantially elevated even after immune reconstitution with antiretroviral therapy (ART). From the earliest days of the HIV epidemic, it was evident that preventive therapy with isoniazid—a cheap, widely available, well-tolerated drug that has been around for more than 60 years—was protective against tuberculosis in people with HIV infection, and WHO recommended its use as a personal health measure (ie, not as a programmatic imperative) in 1993.

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[Editorial] Disaster prevention should be equal

If you are feeling overwhelmed by Mother Nature’s recent demonstrations of power, the current disaster map on reliefweb will not reassure you. It confirms at a glance the omnipresence and persistence of natural disasters: events such as havoc-wreaking monsoon rains in South Asia, flashfloods and landslides in Africa, powerful hurricanes and earthquakes in the Americas, sadly not unusual phenomena but particularly startling in their intensity this year, have upended the lives of hundreds of thousands of people since the beginning of 2017.

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[Corrections] Correction to 2017; 5: e984–91

Scheltema NM, Gentile A, Lucion F, et al. Global respiratory syncytial virus-associated mortality in young children (RSV GOLD): a retrospective case series. Lancet Glob Health 2017; 5: e984–91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(17)30344-3—The following sentence in the Findings section of the Summary should have read: Median age for RSV-related deaths was 5·0 months (IQR 2·3–11·0) in low-income or lower middle-income countries, 4·0 months (2·0–10·0) in upper middle-income countries, and 7·0 months (3·6–16·8) in high-income countries.” This correction has been made to the online version as of Oct 3, 2017.

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