by Purnima Menon, Phuong Hong Nguyen, Kuntal Kumar Saha, Adiba Khaled, Andrew Kennedy, Lan Mai Tran, Tina Sanghvi, Nemat Hajeebhoy, Jean Baker, Silvia Alayon, Kaosar Afsana, Raisul Haque, Edward A. Frongillo, Marie T. Ruel, Rahul Rawat Background Despite recommendations supporting optimal breastfeeding, the number of women practicing exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) remains low, and few interventions have demonstrated implementation and impact at scale. Alive & Thrive was implemented over a period of 6 y (2009–2014) and aimed to improve breastfeeding practices through intensified interpersonal counseling (IPC), mass media (MM), and community mobilization (CM) intervention components delivered at scale in the context of policy advocacy (PA) in Bangladesh and Viet Nam.
Author Archives: PLoS Medicine
by Rein M. G. J. Houben, Peter J. Dodd Background The existing estimate of the global burden of latent TB infection (LTBI) as “one-third” of the world population is nearly 20 y old.
by Christian L. Althaus, Nicola Low Christian Althaus and Nicola Low reflect on the contribution of sexual transmission to the spread of Zika virus.
by Joanne Elizabeth Hegarty, Jane Elizabeth Harding, Gregory David Gamble, Caroline Anne Crowther, Richard Edlin, Jane Marie Alsweiler Background Neonatal hypoglycaemia is common, affecting up to 15% of newborns, and can cause brain damage. Currently, there are no strategies, beyond early feeding, to prevent neonatal hypoglycaemia. Our aim was to determine a dose of 40% oral dextrose gel that will prevent neonatal hypoglycaemia in newborn babies at risk. Methods and Findings We conducted a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled dose-finding trial of buccal dextrose gel to prevent neonatal hypoglycaemia at two hospitals in New Zealand. Babies at risk of hypoglycaemia (infant of a mother with diabetes, late preterm delivery, small or large birthweight, or other risk factors) but without indication for admission to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) were randomly allocated either to one of four treatment groups: 40% dextrose at one of two doses (0.5 ml/kg = 200 mg/kg, or 1 ml/kg = 400 mg/kg), either once at 1 h of age or followed by three additional doses of dextrose (0.5 ml/kg before feeds in the first 12 h); or to one of four corresponding placebo groups
by Peter J. Hotez Peter Hotez reflects on declining vaccination rates in Texas and the potential for future measles epidemics.
by Sarah H. Wild, Janet Hanley, Stephanie C. Lewis, John A. McKnight, Lucy B. McCloughan, Paul L.
by Leila Rooshenas, Daisy Elliott, Julia Wade, Marcus Jepson, Sangeetha Paramasivan, Sean Strong, Caroline Wilson, David Beard, Jane M. Blazeby, Alison Birtle, Alison Halliday, Chris A. Rogers, Rob Stein, Jenny L. Donovan, ACST-2 study group , By-Band-Sleeve study group , Chemorad study group , CSAW study group , Optima prelim study group , POUT study group Background Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are essential for evidence-based medicine and increasingly rely on front-line clinicians to recruit eligible patients.
by Jamie J. Kirkham, Sarah Gorst, Douglas G. Altman, Jane M. Blazeby, Mike Clarke, Declan Devane, Elizabeth Gargon, David Moher, Jochen Schmitt, Peter Tugwell, Sean Tunis, Paula R. Williamson Background Core outcome sets (COS) can enhance the relevance of research by ensuring that outcomes of importance to health service users and other people making choices about health care in a particular topic area are measured routinely.
by Hannah H. Leslie, Günther Fink, Humphreys Nsona, Margaret E. Kruk Background Ending preventable newborn deaths is a global health priority, but efforts to improve coverage of maternal and newborn care have not yielded expected gains in infant survival in many settings. One possible explanation is poor quality of clinical care. We assess facility quality and estimate the association of facility quality with neonatal mortality in Malawi
by Reecha Sofat, Jackie A. Cooper, Meena Kumari, Juan P. Casas, Jacqueline P. Mitchell, Jayshree Acharya, Simon Thom, Alun D.
by Alessandro Cassini, Diamantis Plachouras, Tim Eckmanns, Muna Abu Sin, Hans-Peter Blank, Tanja Ducomble, Sebastian Haller, Thomas Harder, Anja Klingeberg, Madlen Sixtensson, Edward Velasco, Bettina Weiß, Piotr Kramarz, Dominique L. Monnet, Mirjam E. Kretzschmar, Carl Suetens Background Estimating the burden of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) compared to other communicable diseases is an ongoing challenge given the need for good quality data on the incidence of these infections and the involved comorbidities. Based on the methodology of the Burden of Communicable Diseases in Europe (BCoDE) project and 2011–2012 data from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) point prevalence survey (PPS) of HAIs and antimicrobial use in European acute care hospitals, we estimated the burden of six common HAIs. Methods and Findings The included HAIs were healthcare-associated pneumonia (HAP), healthcare-associated urinary tract infection (HA UTI), surgical site infection (SSI), healthcare-associated Clostridium difficile infection (HA CDI), healthcare-associated neonatal sepsis, and healthcare-associated primary bloodstream infection (HA primary BSI)
by Frank J. Wolters, Francesco U. S. Mattace-Raso, Peter J.
by John A. Todd, Marina Evangelou, Antony J. Cutler, Marcin L. Pekalski, Neil M. Walker, Helen E