Author Archives: PLoS Medicine

Concussions and Repercussions

by Donald A. Redelmeier, Sheharyar Raza In their Perspective, Donald A. Redelmeier and Sheharyar Raza discuss the significance of Seena Fazel and colleagues’ longitudinal study of traumatic brain injury (TBI)-associated outcomes.

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Availability and Use of HIV Monitoring and Early Infant Diagnosis Technologies in WHO Member…

by Vincent Habiyambere, Nathan Ford, Daniel Low-Beer, John Nkengasong, Anita Sands, Mercedes Pérez González, Paula Fernandes, Ekaterina Milgotina Background The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS) 90-90-90 targets have reinforced the importance of functioning laboratory services to ensure prompt diagnosis and to assess treatment efficacy. We surveyed the availability and utilization of technologies for HIV treatment monitoring and early infant diagnosis (EID) in World Health Organization (WHO) Member States. Methods and Findings The survey questionnaire included 14 structured questions focusing on HIV testing, cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) testing, HIV viral load (VL) testing, and EID and was administered annually from 2012 to 2014 through WHO country offices, with each survey covering the previous 12-mo period. Across 127 targeted countries, survey response rates were 60% in 2012, 67% in 2013, and 78% in 2014. There were encouraging trends towards increased procurement of CD4 and VL/EID instruments in reporting countries

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Progress and Challenges in Scaling Up Laboratory Monitoring of HIV Treatment

by Peter H. Kilmarx, Raiva Simbi In a perspective on Habiyambere and colleagues, Peter Kilmarx and Raiva Simbi discuss the disconnect between HIV testing instrument capacity and utilization.

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Integrated Delivery of Antiretroviral Treatment and Pre-exposure Prophylaxis to…

by Jared M. Baeten, Renee Heffron, Lara Kidoguchi, Nelly R. Mugo, Elly Katabira, Elizabeth A. Bukusi, Stephen Asiimwe, Jessica E. Haberer, Jennifer Morton, Kenneth Ngure, Nulu Bulya, Josephine Odoyo, Edna Tindimwebwa, Craig Hendrix, Mark A

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Long-Term Outcomes Associated with Traumatic Brain Injury in Childhood and Adolescence: A…

by Amir Sariaslan, David J. Sharp, Brian M. D’Onofrio, Henrik Larsson, Seena Fazel Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of disability and mortality in children and young adults worldwide. It remains unclear, however, how TBI in childhood and adolescence is associated with adult mortality, psychiatric morbidity, and social outcomes. Methods and Findings In a Swedish birth cohort between 1973 and 1985 of 1,143,470 individuals, we identified all those who had sustained at least one TBI (n = 104,290 or 9.1%) up to age 25 y and their unaffected siblings (n = 68,268) using patient registers.

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Correction: Dietary Diversity, Diet Cost, and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in the United…

by The PLOS Medicine Staff Corrected publisher error in data availability statement.

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Make Data Sharing Routine to Prepare for Public Health Emergencies

by Jean-Paul Chretien, Caitlin M. Rivers, Michael A. Johansson Jean-Paul Chretien and colleagues argue that recent Ebola and Zika virus outbreaks highlight the importance of data sharing in scientific research.

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Assessment of Adverse Events in Protocols, Clinical Study Reports, and Published Papers of…

by Jeppe Bennekou Schroll, Elisabeth I. Penninga, Peter C. Gøtzsche Background Little is known about how adverse events are summarised and reported in trials, as detailed information is usually considered confidential. We have acquired clinical study reports (CSRs) from the European Medicines Agency through the Freedom of Information Act. The CSRs describe the results of studies conducted as part of the application for marketing authorisation for the slimming pill orlistat.

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Genetic and Environmental Risk for Chronic Pain and the Contribution of Risk Variants for Major…

by Andrew M. McIntosh, Lynsey S. Hall, Yanni Zeng, Mark J. Adams, Jude Gibson, Eleanor Wigmore, Saskia P. Hagenaars, Gail Davies, Ana Maria Fernandez-Pujals, Archie I

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Building from the HIV Response toward Universal Health Coverage

by Jonathan Jay, Kent Buse, Marielle Hart, David Wilson, Robert Marten, Scott Kellerman, Morolake Odetoyinbo, Jonathan D. Quick, Timothy Evans, Peter Piot, Mark Dybul, Agnes Binagwaho Jonathan Jay and colleagues draw lessons from the the global HIV response that could help guide the universal health coverage movement.

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Measuring Burden of Unhealthy Behaviours Using a Multivariable Predictive Approach: Life…

by Douglas G. Manuel, Richard Perez, Claudia Sanmartin, Monica Taljaard, Deirdre Hennessy, Kumanan Wilson, Peter Tanuseputro, Heather Manson, Carol Bennett, Meltem Tuna, Stacey Fisher, Laura C. Rosella Background Behaviours such as smoking, poor diet, physical inactivity, and unhealthy alcohol consumption are leading risk factors for death. We assessed the Canadian burden attributable to these behaviours by developing, validating, and applying a multivariable predictive model for risk of all-cause death. Methods A predictive algorithm for 5 y risk of death—the Mortality Population Risk Tool (MPoRT)—was developed and validated using the 2001 to 2008 Canadian Community Health Surveys

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Duration of Adulthood Overweight, Obesity, and Cancer Risk in the Women’s Health Initiative:…

by Melina Arnold, Luohua Jiang, Marcia L. Stefanick, Karen C. Johnson, Dorothy S. Lane, Erin S.

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Transitioning to Country Ownership of HIV Programs in Rwanda

by Agnes Binagwaho, Ida Kankindi, Eugenie Kayirangwa, Jean Pierre Nyemazi, Sabin Nsanzimana, Fernando Morales, Rose Kadende-Kaiser, Kirstin Woody Scott, Veronicah Mugisha, Ruben Sahabo, Cyprien Baribwira, Leia Isanhart, Anita Asiimwe, Wafaa M. El-Sadr, Pratima L. Raghunathan Agnes Binagwaho and colleagues describe how Rwanda achieved country ownership of its HIV programs.

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Correction: Guidelines for Accurate and Transparent Health Estimates Reporting: the GATHER…

by Gretchen A. Stevens, Leontine Alkema, Robert E. Black, J. Ties Boerma, Gary S. Collins, Majid Ezzati, John T

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