Author Archives: PLoS Medicine

World Health Organization Guidelines for Management of Acute Stress, PTSD, and Bereavement: Key…

by Wietse A. Tol, Corrado Barbui, Jonathan Bisson, Judith Cohen, Zeinab Hijazi, Lynne Jones, Joop T. V. M. de Jong, Nicola Magrini, Olayinka Omigbodun, Soraya Seedat, Derrick Silove, Renato Souza, Athula Sumathipala, Lakshmi Vijayakumar, Inka Weissbecker, Douglas Zatzick, Mark van Ommeren

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Home-Based Versus Mobile Clinic HIV Testing and Counseling in Rural Lesotho: A…

by Niklaus Daniel Labhardt, Masetsibi Motlomelo, Bernard Cerutti, Karolin Pfeiffer, Mashaete Kamele, Michael A. Hobbins, Jochen Ehmer Background The success of HIV programs relies on widely accessible HIV testing and counseling (HTC) services at health facilities as well as in the community. Home-based HTC (HB-HTC) is a popular community-based approach to reach persons who do not test at health facilities. Data comparing HB-HTC to other community-based HTC approaches are very limited.

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From Joint Thinking to Joint Action: A Call to Action on Improving Water, Sanitation, and…

by Yael Velleman, Elizabeth Mason, Wendy Graham, Lenka Benova, Mickey Chopra, Oona M. R. Campbell, Bruce Gordon, Sanjay Wijesekera, Sennen Hounton, Joanna Esteves Mills, Val Curtis, Kaosar Afsana, Sophie Boisson, Moke Magoma, Sandy Cairncross, Oliver Cumming

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Metabolic Signatures of Adiposity in Young Adults: Mendelian Randomization Analysis and Effects…

by Peter Würtz, Qin Wang, Antti J. Kangas, Rebecca C. Richmond, Joni Skarp, Mika Tiainen, Tuulia Tynkkynen, Pasi Soininen, Aki S. Havulinna, Marika Kaakinen, Jorma S. Viikari, Markku J.

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Impact of Replacing Smear Microscopy with Xpert MTB/RIF for Diagnosing Tuberculosis in Brazil:…

by Betina Durovni, Valeria Saraceni, Susan van den Hof, Anete Trajman, Marcelo Cordeiro-Santos, Solange Cavalcante, Alexandre Menezes, Frank Cobelens Background Abundant evidence on Xpert MTB/RIF accuracy for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB) and rifampicin resistance has been produced, yet there are few data on the population benefit of its programmatic use. We assessed whether the implementation of Xpert MTB/RIF in routine conditions would (1) increase the notification rate of laboratory-confirmed pulmonary TB to the national notification system and (2) reduce the time to TB treatment initiation (primary endpoints). Methods and Findings We conducted a stepped-wedge cluster-randomized trial from 4 February to 4 October 2012 in 14 primary care laboratories in two Brazilian cities. Diagnostic specimens were included for 11,705 baseline (smear microscopy) and 12,522 intervention (Xpert MTB/RIF) patients presumed to have TB. Single-sputum-sample Xpert MTB/RIF replaced two-sputum-sample smear microscopy for routine diagnosis of pulmonary TB.

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Alcohol Harm Reduction: Corporate Capture of a Key Concept

by Jim McCambridge, Kypros Kypri, Colin Drummond, John Strang

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Tracking Rural Health Facility Financial Data in Resource-Limited Settings: A Case Study from Rwanda

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Reliable financial data are essential for health policy formulation and implementation, as well as for monitoring and evaluation.  PLOS Medicine: Tracking Rural Health Facility Financial Read More

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Tracking Rural Health Facility Financial Data in Resource-Limited Settings: A Case Study from…

by Chunling Lu, Sandy Tsai, John Ruhumuriza, Grace Umugiraneza, Solange Kandamutsa, Phillip P. Salvatore, Zibiao Zhang, Agnes Binagwaho, Fidele Ngabo

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Evaluation of the Lung Cancer Risks at Which to Screen Ever- and Never-Smokers: Screening Rules…

by Martin C. Tammemägi, Timothy R. Church, William G. Hocking, Gerard A. Silvestri, Paul A

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Effect of Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea on Depressive Symptoms: Systematic Review and…

by Marcus Povitz, Carmelle E. Bolo, Steven J. Heitman, Willis H. Tsai, JianLi Wang, Matthew T.

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Impact of Xpert MTB/RIF for TB Diagnosis in a Primary Care Clinic with High TB and HIV…

by Helen S. Cox, Slindile Mbhele, Neisha Mohess, Andrew Whitelaw, Odelia Muller, Widaad Zemanay, Francesca Little, Virginia Azevedo, John Simpson, Catharina C. Boehme, Mark P. Nicol Background Xpert MTB/RIF is approved for use in tuberculosis (TB) and rifampicin-resistance diagnosis. However, data are limited on the impact of Xpert under routine conditions in settings with high TB burden.

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(How) Can We Reduce Violence Against Women by 50% over the Next 30 Years?

by Rachel Jewkes

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Computerized Cognitive Training in Cognitively Healthy Older Adults: A Systematic Review and…

by Amit Lampit, Harry Hallock, Michael Valenzuela Background New effective interventions to attenuate age-related cognitive decline are a global priority. Computerized cognitive training (CCT) is believed to be safe and can be inexpensive, but neither its efficacy in enhancing cognitive performance in healthy older adults nor the impact of design factors on such efficacy has been systematically analyzed. Our aim therefore was to quantitatively assess whether CCT programs can enhance cognition in healthy older adults, discriminate responsive from nonresponsive cognitive domains, and identify the most salient design factors. Methods and Findings We systematically searched Medline, Embase, and PsycINFO for relevant studies from the databases’ inception to 9 July 2014.

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What Could Computerized Brain Training Learn from Evidence-Based Medicine?

by Druin Burch

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