Author Archives: PLoS Medicine

Treatment of Infections in Young Infants in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic…

by Anne CC Lee, Aruna Chandran, Hadley K. Herbert, Naoko Kozuki, Perry Markell, Rashed Shah, Harry Campbell, Igor Rudan, Abdullah H. Baqui Background Inadequate illness recognition and access to antibiotics contribute to high case fatality from infections in young infants (<2 months) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We aimed to address three questions regarding access to treatment for young infant infections in LMICs: (1) Can frontline health workers accurately diagnose possible bacterial infection (pBI)?; (2) How available and affordable are antibiotics?; (3) How often are antibiotics procured without a prescription?</p> Methods and Findings We searched PubMed, Embase, WHO/Health Action International (HAI), databases, service provision assessments (SPAs), Demographic and Health Surveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, and grey literature with no date restriction until May 2014. Data were identified from 37 published studies, 46 HAI national surveys, and eight SPAs

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Association of Medical Students’ Reports of Interactions with the Pharmaceutical and Medical…

by James S. Yeh, Kirsten E. Austad, Jessica M. Franklin, Susan Chimonas, Eric G. Campbell, Jerry Avorn, Aaron S.

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Critical Appraisal and Data Extraction for Systematic Reviews of Prediction Modelling Studies:…

by Karel G. M. Moons, Joris A. H. de Groot, Walter Bouwmeester, Yvonne Vergouwe, Susan Mallett, Douglas G

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Hemoglobin A1c Levels and Risk of Severe Hypoglycemia in Children and Young Adults with Type 1…

by Beate Karges, Joachim Rosenbauer, Thomas Kapellen, Verena M. Wagner, Edith Schober, Wolfram Karges, Reinhard W. Holl Background Severe hypoglycemia is a major complication of insulin treatment in patients with type 1 diabetes, limiting full realization of glycemic control. It has been shown in the past that low levels of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), a marker of average plasma glucose, predict a high risk of severe hypoglycemia, but it is uncertain whether this association still exists. Based on advances in diabetes technology and pharmacotherapy, we hypothesized that the inverse association between severe hypoglycemia and HbA1c has decreased in recent years.

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Europe Needs a Central, Transparent, and Evidence-Based Approval Process for Behavioural…

by Fabrizio Faggiano, Elias Allara, Fabrizia Giannotta, Roberta Molinar, Harry Sumnall, Reinout Wiers, Susan Michie, Linda Collins, Patricia Conrod

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Description of 3,180 Courses of Chelation with Dimercaptosuccinic Acid in Children ≤5 y with…

by Natalie Thurtle, Jane Greig, Lauren Cooney, Yona Amitai, Cono Ariti, Mary Jean Brown, Michael J. Kosnett, Krystel Moussally, Nasir Sani-Gwarzo, Henry Akpan, Leslie Shanks, Paul I. Dargan Background In 2010, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) discovered extensive lead poisoning impacting several thousand children in rural northern Nigeria. An estimated 400 fatalities had occurred over 3 mo.

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Global Financing and Long-Term Technical Assistance for Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis:…

by Thomas J. Hwang, Salmaan Keshavjee

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Readmissions after Hospitalization for Heart Failure, Acute Myocardial Infarction, or Pneumonia…

by Isuru Ranasinghe, Yongfei Wang, Kumar Dharmarajan, Angela F. Hsieh, Susannah M. Bernheim, Harlan M. Krumholz Background Patients aged ≥65 years are vulnerable to readmissions due to a transient period of generalized risk after hospitalization. However, whether young and middle-aged adults share a similar risk pattern is uncertain

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Proton Pump Inhibitors and Hospitalization with Hypomagnesemia: A Population-Based Case-Control…

by Jonathan Zipursky, Erin M. Macdonald, Simon Hollands, Tara Gomes, Muhammad M. Mamdani, J. Michael Paterson, Nina Lathia, David N. Juurlink Background Some evidence suggests that proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are an under-appreciated risk factor for hypomagnesemia

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Malaria Prevention during Pregnancy—Is There a Next Step Forward?

by Richard W. Steketee

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Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria in Pregnancy with Mefloquine in HIV-Infected Women…

by Raquel González, Meghna Desai, Eusebio Macete, Peter Ouma, Mwaka A. Kakolwa, Salim Abdulla, John J. Aponte, Helder Bulo, Abdunoor M. Kabanywanyi, Abraham Katana, Sonia Maculuve, Alfredo Mayor, Arsenio Nhacolo, Kephas Otieno, Golbahar Pahlavan, María Rupérez, Esperança Sevene, Laurence Slutsker, Anifa Vala, John Williamsom, Clara Menéndez Background Intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is recommended for malaria prevention in HIV-negative pregnant women, but it is contraindicated in HIV-infected women taking daily cotrimoxazole prophylaxis (CTXp) because of potential added risk of adverse effects associated with taking two antifolate drugs simultaneously.

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Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria in Pregnancy with Mefloquine in HIV-Negative…

by Raquel González, Ghyslain Mombo-Ngoma, Smaïla Ouédraogo, Mwaka A. Kakolwa, Salim Abdulla, Manfred Accrombessi, John J. Aponte, Daisy Akerey-Diop, Arti Basra, Valérie Briand, Meskure Capan, Michel Cot, Abdunoor M. Kabanywanyi, Christian Kleine, Peter G.

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Beyond UHC: Monitoring Health and Social Protection Coverage in the Context of Tuberculosis…

by Knut Lönnroth, Philippe Glaziou, Diana Weil, Katherine Floyd, Mukund Uplekar, Mario Raviglione Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global public health problem. In all societies, the disease affects the poorest individuals the worst. A new post-2015 global TB strategy has been developed by WHO, which explicitly highlights the key role of universal health coverage (UHC) and social protection. One of the proposed targets is that “No TB affected families experience catastrophic costs due to TB.” High direct and indirect costs of care hamper access, increase the risk of poor TB treatment outcomes, exacerbate poverty, and contribute to sustaining TB transmission. UHC, conventionally defined as access to health care without risk of financial hardship due to out-of-pocket health care expenditures, is essential but not sufficient for effective and equitable TB care and prevention.

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Monitoring and Evaluating Progress towards Universal Health Coverage in Chile

by Ximena Aguilera, Carla Castillo-Laborde, Manuel Nájera-De Ferrari, Iris Delgado, Ciro Ibañez

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