by Danielle Ofri
Author Archives: PLoS Medicine
by Claudia Hanson, Fatuma Manzi, Elibariki Mkumbo, Kizito Shirima, Suzanne Penfold, Zelee Hill, Donat Shamba, Jennie Jaribu, Yuna Hamisi, Seyi Soremekun, Simon Cousens, Tanya Marchant, Hassan Mshinda, David Schellenberg, Marcel Tanner, Joanna Schellenberg Background We report a cluster-randomised trial of a home-based counselling strategy, designed for large-scale implementation, in a population of 1.2 million people in rural southern Tanzania. We hypothesised that the strategy would improve neonatal survival by around 15%. Methods and Findings In 2010 we trained 824 female volunteers to make three home visits to women and their families during pregnancy and two visits to them in the first few days of the infant’s life in 65 wards, selected randomly from all 132 wards in six districts in Mtwara and Lindi regions, constituting typical rural areas in Southern Tanzania. The remaining wards were comparison areas.
by Cosetta Minelli, Gianluca Baio
by Keira A. Cohen, Thomas Abeel, Abigail Manson McGuire, Christopher A. Desjardins, Vanisha Munsamy, Terrance P. Shea, Bruce J.
by Monica L. Bertoia, Kenneth J. Mukamal, Leah E. Cahill, Tao Hou, David S.
by David Moher, Douglas G. Altman
by Xiaoqiu Liu, James J. Lewis, Hui Zhang, Wei Lu, Shun Zhang, Guilan Zheng, Liqiong Bai, Jun Li, Xue Li, Hongguang Chen, Mingming Liu, Rong Chen, Junying Chi, Jian Lu, Shitong Huan, Shiming Cheng, Lixia Wang, Shiwen Jiang, Daniel P. Chin, Katherine L. Fielding Background Mobile text messaging and medication monitors (medication monitor boxes) have the potential to improve adherence to tuberculosis (TB) treatment and reduce the need for directly observed treatment (DOT), but to our knowledge they have not been properly evaluated in TB patients.
by Yasmina Molero, Paul Lichtenstein, Johan Zetterqvist, Clara Hellner Gumpert, Seena Fazel Background Although selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are widely prescribed, associations with violence are uncertain. Methods and Findings From Swedish national registers we extracted information on 856,493 individuals who were prescribed SSRIs, and subsequent violent crimes during 2006 through 2009. We used stratified Cox regression analyses to compare the rate of violent crime while individuals were prescribed these medications with the rate in the same individuals while not receiving medication. Adjustments were made for other psychotropic medications.
by John Z. Metcalfe, Max R. O’Donnell, David R. Bangsberg
by Augustine T. Choko, Peter MacPherson, Emily L. Webb, Barbara A. Willey, Helena Feasy, Rodrick Sambakunsi, Aaron Mdolo, Simon D. Makombe, Nicola Desmond, Richard Hayes, Hendramoorthy Maheswaran, Elizabeth L.
by Harald Schmidt, Anne Barnhill
by Zunyou Wu, Yan Zhao, Xianmin Ge, Yurong Mao, Zhenzhu Tang, Cynthia X. Shi, Chi Chen, Yong Li, Xuejun Qiu, Guide Nong, Shanhui Huang, Shen Luo, Shaohui Wu, Wenzhen He, Mingjie Zhang, Zhiyong Shen, Xia Jin, Jian Li, Ron Brookmeyer, Roger Detels, Julio Montaner, Yu Wang Background Multistage stepwise HIV testing and treatment initiation procedures can result in lost opportunities to provide timely antiretroviral therapy (ART). Incomplete patient engagement along the continuum of HIV care translates into high levels of preventable mortality. We aimed to evaluate the ability of a simplified test and treat structural intervention to reduce mortality.
by Pamela Maris, Arnaud Blomme, Ana Perez Palacios, Brunella Costanza, Akeila Bellahcène, Elettra Bianchi, Stephanie Gofflot, Pierre Drion, Giovanna Elvi Trombino, Emmanuel Di Valentin, Pino G. Cusumano, Sylvie Maweja, Guy Jerusalem, Philippe Delvenne, Eric Lifrange, Vincent Castronovo, Andrei Turtoi Background Breast cancer is a leading malignancy affecting the female population worldwide. Most morbidity is caused by metastases that remain incurable to date. TGF-β1 has been identified as a key driving force behind metastatic breast cancer, with promising therapeutic implications. Methods and Findings Employing immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis, we report, to our knowledge for the first time, that asporin is overexpressed in the stroma of most human breast cancers and is not expressed in normal breast tissue
by Gesine Meyer-Rath, Jan Pienaar, Brian Brink, Andrew van Zyl, Debbie Muirhead, Alison Grant, Gavin Churchyard, Charlotte Watts, Peter Vickerman Background HIV impacts heavily on the operating costs of companies in sub-Saharan Africa, with many companies now providing antiretroviral therapy (ART) programmes in the workplace. A full cost–benefit analysis of workplace ART provision has not been conducted using primary data. We developed a dynamic health-state transition model to estimate the economic impact of HIV and the cost–benefit of ART provision in a mining company in South Africa between 2003 and 2022. Methods and Findings A dynamic health-state transition model, called the Workplace Impact Model (WIM), was parameterised with workplace data on workforce size, composition, turnover, HIV incidence, and CD4 cell count development. Bottom-up cost analyses from the employer perspective supplied data on inpatient and outpatient resource utilisation and the costs of absenteeism and replacement of sick workers