by Albert Liu, Stephanie Cohen, Stephen Follansbee, Deborah Cohan, Shannon Weber, Darpun Sachdev, Susan Buchbinder
Author Archives: PLoS Medicine
by Mary K. Grabowski, Justin Lessler, Andrew D. Redd, Joseph Kagaayi, Oliver Laeyendecker, Anthony Ndyanabo, Martha I. Nelson, Derek A. T.
by Ana Maria Buller, Karen M. Devries, Louise M. Howard, Loraine J. Bacchus Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) among men who have sex with men (MSM) is a significant problem.
by Krista Fischer, Johannes Kettunen, Peter Würtz, Toomas Haller, Aki S. Havulinna, Antti J. Kangas, Pasi Soininen, Tõnu Esko, Mari-Liis Tammesoo, Reedik Mägi, Steven Smit, Aarno Palotie, Samuli Ripatti, Veikko Salomaa, Mika Ala-Korpela, Markus Perola, Andres Metspalu Background Early identification of ambulatory persons at high short-term risk of death could benefit targeted prevention. To identify biomarkers for all-cause mortality and enhance risk prediction, we conducted high-throughput profiling of blood specimens in two large population-based cohorts. Methods and Findings 106 candidate biomarkers were quantified by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of non-fasting plasma samples from a random subset of the Estonian Biobank (n = 9,842; age range 18–103 y; 508 deaths during a median of 5.4 y of follow-up)
by Theodora Bloom, Emma Ganley, Margaret Winker
by Alison L. Drake, Anjuli Wagner, Barbra Richardson, Grace John-Stewart Background Women may have persistent risk of HIV acquisition during pregnancy and postpartum. Estimating risk of HIV during these periods is important to inform optimal prevention approaches. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate maternal HIV incidence during pregnancy/postpartum and to compare mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT) risk among women with incident versus chronic infection. Methods and Findings We searched PubMed, Embase, and AIDS-related conference abstracts between January 1, 1980, and October 31, 2013, for articles and abstracts describing HIV acquisition during pregnancy/postpartum
by Meredith E. Stocks, Stephanie Ogden, Danny Haddad, David G. Addiss, Courtney McGuire, Matthew C. Freeman Background Trachoma is the world’s leading cause of infectious blindness. The World Health Organization (WHO) has endorsed the SAFE strategy in order to eliminate blindness due to trachoma by 2020 through “surgery,” “antibiotics,” “facial cleanliness,” and “environmental improvement.” While the S and A components have been widely implemented, evidence and specific targets are lacking for the F and E components, of which water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are critical elements.
by Anja Ulmer, Klaus Dietz, Isabelle Hodak, Bernhard Polzer, Sebastian Scheitler, Murat Yildiz, Zbigniew Czyz, Petra Lehnert, Tanja Fehm, Christian Hafner, Stefan Schanz, Martin Röcken, Claus Garbe, Helmut Breuninger, Gerhard Fierlbeck, Christoph A. Klein Background Sentinel lymph node spread is a crucial factor in melanoma outcome. We aimed to define the impact of minimal cancer spread and of increasing numbers of disseminated cancer cells on melanoma-specific survival. Methods and Findings We analyzed 1,834 sentinel nodes from 1,027 patients with ultrasound node-negative melanoma who underwent sentinel node biopsy between February 8, 2000, and June 19, 2008, by histopathology including immunohistochemistry and quantitative immunocytology.
by Julian H. Elliott, Tari Turner, Ornella Clavisi, James Thomas, Julian P. T. Higgins, Chris Mavergames, Russell L. Gruen
by Julian J. Z. Prokopetz, Lisa Soleymani Lehmann
by Martin Gallagher, Alan Cass, Rinaldo Bellomo, Simon Finfer, David Gattas, Joanne Lee, Serigne Lo, Shay McGuinness, John Myburgh, Rachael Parke, Dorrilyn Rajbhandari, for the POST-RENAL Study Investigators and the ANZICS Clinical Trials Group Background The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) is increasing globally and it is much more common than end-stage kidney disease. AKI is associated with high mortality and cost of hospitalisation. Studies of treatments to reduce this high mortality have used differing renal replacement therapy (RRT) modalities and have not shown improvement in the short term. The reported long-term outcomes of AKI are variable and the effect of differing RRT modalities upon them is not clear. We used the prolonged follow-up of a large clinical trial to prospectively examine the long-term outcomes and effect of RRT dosing in patients with AKI.
by Dorte Vistisen, Daniel R. Witte, Adam G. Tabák, Christian Herder, Eric J. Brunner, Mika Kivimäki, Kristine Færch Background Patients with type 2 diabetes vary greatly with respect to degree of obesity at time of diagnosis.
by Tetyana Kendzerska, Andrea S. Gershon, Gillian Hawker, Richard S. Leung, George Tomlinson Background Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been reported to be a risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) disease. Although the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) is the most commonly used measure of OSA, other less well studied OSA-related variables may be more pathophysiologically relevant and offer better prediction.
by Baiju R. Shah, Onil Bhattacharyya, Catherine H. Y. Yu, Muhammad M.