Author Archives: PLoS Medicine

Somatic Genomics and Clinical Features of Lung Adenocarcinoma: A Retrospective Study

by Jianxin Shi, Xing Hua, Bin Zhu, Sarangan Ravichandran, Mingyi Wang, Cu Nguyen, Seth A. Brodie, Alessandro Palleschi, Marco Alloisio, Gianluca Pariscenti, Kristine Jones, Weiyin Zhou, Aaron J. Bouk, Joseph Boland, Belynda Hicks, Adam Risch, Hunter Bennett, Brian T. Luke, Lei Song, Jubao Duan, Pengyuan Liu, Takashi Kohno, Qingrong Chen, Daoud Meerzaman, Crystal Marconett, Ite Laird-Offringa, Ian Mills, Neil E.

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Expression of lncRNAs in Low-Grade Gliomas and Glioblastoma Multiforme: An In Silico Analysis

by Brian J. Reon, Jordan Anaya, Ying Zhang, James Mandell, Benjamin Purow, Roger Abounader, Anindya Dutta Background Each year, over 16,000 patients die from malignant brain cancer in the US. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have recently been shown to play critical roles in regulating neurogenesis and brain tumor progression. To better understand the role of lncRNAs in brain cancer, we performed a global analysis to identify and characterize all annotated and novel lncRNAs in both grade II and III gliomas as well as grade IV glioblastomas (glioblastoma multiforme [GBM]).

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Precision Cancer Diagnostics: Tracking Genomic Evolution in Clinical Trials

by Francisco Beca, Andrew H. Beck In a Perspective, Francisco Beca and Andrew Beck discuss Charles Swanton and colleagues’ accompanying Research Article on somatic mutations in patients with inflammatory breast cancer treated in a Phase II clinical trial.

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Clonal Evolutionary Analysis during HER2 Blockade in HER2-Positive Inflammatory Breast Cancer:…

by Gerald Goh, Ramona Schmid, Kelly Guiver, Wichit Arpornwirat, Imjai Chitapanarux, Vinod Ganju, Seock-Ah Im, Sung-Bae Kim, Arunee Dechaphunkul, Jedzada Maneechavakajorn, Neil Spector, Thomas Yau, Mehdi Afrit, Slim Ben Ahmed, Stephen R. Johnston, Neil Gibson, Martina Uttenreuther-Fischer, Javier Herrero, Charles Swanton Background Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare, aggressive form of breast cancer associated with HER2 amplification, with high risk of metastasis and an estimated median survival of 2.9 y. We performed an open-label, single-arm phase II clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01325428) to investigate the efficacy and safety of afatinib, an irreversible ErbB family inhibitor, alone and in combination with vinorelbine in patients with HER2-positive IBC. This trial included prospectively planned exome analysis before and after afatinib monotherapy. Methods and Findings HER2-positive IBC patients received afatinib 40 mg daily until progression, and thereafter afatinib 40 mg daily and intravenous vinorelbine 25 mg/m2 weekly

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Tumor Evolution in Two Patients with Basal-like Breast Cancer: A Retrospective Genomics Study…

by Katherine A. Hoadley, Marni B. Siegel, Krishna L. Kanchi, Christopher A. Miller, Li Ding, Wei Zhao, Xiaping He, Joel S.

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Sequencing Strategies to Guide Decision Making in Cancer Treatment

by James T. Topham, Marco A. Marra In a Perspective, James Topham and Marco Marra discuss progress in the use of genomic information to guide cancer treatment.

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Leukocyte Telomere Length in Relation to 17 Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Disease Risk: A…

by David H. Rehkopf, Belinda L. Needham, Jue Lin, Elizabeth H. Blackburn, Ami R. Zota, Janet M.

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Towards Equity in Health: Researchers Take Stock

by The PLOS Medicine Editors , Annette Rid, Michael A. Johansson, Gabriel Leung, Hannah Valantine, Esteban G. Burchard, Sam S. Oh, Cathy Zimmerman For the 2016 end-of-the-year editorial, the PLOS Medicine editors asked 7 global health leaders to discuss developments relevant to the equitable provision of medical care to all populations. The result is a collection of expert views on ethical trial design, research during outbreaks, high-burden infectious diseases, diversity in research and protection of migrants.

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Will 10 Million People Die a Year due to Antimicrobial Resistance by 2050?

by Marlieke E. A. de Kraker, Andrew J. Stewardson, Stephan Harbarth Marlieke de Kraker and colleagues reflect on the need for better global estimates for the burden of antimicrobial resistance.

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The Long-Term Safety, Public Health Impact, and Cost-Effectiveness of Routine Vaccination with…

by Stefan Flasche, Mark Jit, Isabel Rodríguez-Barraquer, Laurent Coudeville, Mario Recker, Katia Koelle, George Milne, Thomas J. Hladish, T. Alex Perkins, Derek A. T.

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Genetic Predisposition to an Impaired Metabolism of the Branched-Chain Amino Acids and Risk of…

by Luca A. Lotta, Robert A. Scott, Stephen J. Sharp, Stephen Burgess, Jian’an Luan, Therese Tillin, Amand F. Schmidt, Fumiaki Imamura, Isobel D.

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A Core Outcome Set for the Benefits and Adverse Events of Bariatric and Metabolic Surgery: The…

by Karen D. Coulman, James Hopkins, Sara T. Brookes, Katy Chalmers, Barry Main, Amanda Owen-Smith, Robert C. Andrews, James Byrne, Jenny L. Donovan, Graziella Mazza, Barnaby C.

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The Dengue Vaccine Dilemma: Balancing the Individual and Population Risks and Benefits

by Jacqueline Deen In a Perspective, Jacqueline Deeen discusses challenges in balancing the individual and population risks and benefits for CYD-TDV (Dengvaxia), the first available dengue vaccine.

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Patient-Reported Barriers to Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy: A Systematic Review and…

by Zara Shubber, Edward J. Mills, Jean B. Nachega, Rachel Vreeman, Marcelo Freitas, Peter Bock, Sabin Nsanzimana, Martina Penazzato, Tsitsi Appolo, Meg Doherty, Nathan Ford Background Maintaining high levels of adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a challenge across settings and populations. Understanding the relative importance of different barriers to adherence will help inform the targeting of different interventions and future research priorities.

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