Author Archives: PLoS Medicine

Computerized Cognitive Training in Cognitively Healthy Older Adults: A Systematic Review and…

by Amit Lampit, Harry Hallock, Michael Valenzuela Background New effective interventions to attenuate age-related cognitive decline are a global priority. Computerized cognitive training (CCT) is believed to be safe and can be inexpensive, but neither its efficacy in enhancing cognitive performance in healthy older adults nor the impact of design factors on such efficacy has been systematically analyzed. Our aim therefore was to quantitatively assess whether CCT programs can enhance cognition in healthy older adults, discriminate responsive from nonresponsive cognitive domains, and identify the most salient design factors. Methods and Findings We systematically searched Medline, Embase, and PsycINFO for relevant studies from the databases’ inception to 9 July 2014.

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What Could Computerized Brain Training Learn from Evidence-Based Medicine?

by Druin Burch

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Association of FKBP51 with Priming of Autophagy Pathways and Mediation of Antidepressant…

by Nils C. Gassen, Jakob Hartmann, Jürgen Zschocke, Jens Stepan, Kathrin Hafner, Andreas Zellner, Thomas Kirmeier, Lorenz Kollmannsberger, Klaus V. Wagner, Nina Dedic, Georgia Balsevich, Jan M. Deussing, Stefan Kloiber, Susanne Lucae, Florian Holsboer, Matthias Eder, Manfred Uhr, Marcus Ising, Mathias V. Schmidt, Theo Rein Background FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP51) is an Hsp90 co-chaperone and regulator of the glucocorticoid receptor, and consequently of stress physiology.

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A Transdiagnostic Community-Based Mental Health Treatment for Comorbid Disorders: Development…

by Paul Bolton, Catherine Lee, Emily E. Haroz, Laura Murray, Shannon Dorsey, Courtland Robinson, Ana M. Ugueto, Judith Bass Background Existing studies of mental health interventions in low-resource settings have employed highly structured interventions delivered by non-professionals that typically do not vary by client. Given high comorbidity among mental health problems and implementation challenges with scaling up multiple structured evidence-based treatments (EBTs), a transdiagnostic treatment could provide an additional option for approaching community-based treatment of mental health problems. Our objective was to test such an approach specifically designed for flexible treatments of varying and comorbid disorders among trauma survivors in a low-resource setting

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The kSORT Assay to Detect Renal Transplant Patients at High Risk for Acute Rejection: Results…

by Silke Roedder, Tara Sigdel, Nathan Salomonis, Sue Hsieh, Hong Dai, Oriol Bestard, Diana Metes, Andrea Zeevi, Albin Gritsch, Jennifer Cheeseman, Camila Macedo, Ram Peddy, Mara Medeiros, Flavio Vincenti, Nancy Asher, Oscar Salvatierra, Ron Shapiro, Allan Kirk, Elaine Reed, Minnie M. Sarwal Background Development of noninvasive molecular assays to improve disease diagnosis and patient monitoring is a critical need. In renal transplantation, acute rejection (AR) increases the risk for chronic graft injury and failure. Noninvasive diagnostic assays to improve current late and nonspecific diagnosis of rejection are needed.

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Act II of the Sunshine Act

by Genevieve Pham-Kanter

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Sublingual Misoprostol versus Intramuscular Oxytocin for Prevention of Postpartum Hemorrhage in…

by Esther C. Atukunda, Mark J. Siedner, Celestino Obua, Godfrey R. Mugyenyi, Marc Twagirumukiza, Amon G. Agaba Background Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is a leading cause of maternal death in sub-Saharan Africa.

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Association of Adenotonsillectomy with Asthma Outcomes in Children: A Longitudinal Database…

by Rakesh Bhattacharjee, Beatrix H. Choi, David Gozal, Babak Mokhlesi Background Childhood asthma and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), both disorders of airway inflammation, were associated in recent observational studies. Although childhood OSA is effectively treated by adenotonsillectomy (AT), it remains unclear whether AT also improves childhood asthma. We hypothesized that AT, the first line of therapy for childhood OSA, would be associated with improved asthma outcomes and would reduce the usage of asthma therapies in children.

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Sex-Specific Differences in Hemodialysis Prevalence and Practices and the Male-to-Female…

by Manfred Hecking, Brian A. Bieber, Jean Ethier, Alexandra Kautzky-Willer, Gere Sunder-Plassmann, Marcus D. Säemann, Sylvia P. B. Ramirez, Brenda W.

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The Causal Effect of Vitamin D Binding Protein (DBP) Levels on Calcemic and Cardiometabolic…

by Aaron Leong, Waheed Rehman, Zari Dastani, Celia Greenwood, Nicholas Timpson, Lisa Langsetmo, Claudie Berger, METASTROKE , Lei Fu, Betty Y. L. Wong, Suneil Malik, Rainer Malik, David A. Hanley, David E. C

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PLOS Medicine at 10 Years: Two Imperatives

by The PLOS Medicine Editors

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How to Make More Published Research True

by John P. A. Ioannidis

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Maternal Clinical Diagnoses and Hospital Variation in the Risk of Cesarean Delivery: Analyses…

by Katy B. Kozhimannil, Mariana C. Arcaya, S. V. Subramanian Background Cesarean delivery is the most common inpatient surgery in the United States, where 1.3 million cesarean sections occur annually, and rates vary widely by hospital.

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Developmental Profiles of Eczema, Wheeze, and Rhinitis: Two Population-Based Birth Cohort…

by Danielle C. M. Belgrave, Raquel Granell, Angela Simpson, John Guiver, Christopher Bishop, Iain Buchan, A. John Henderson, Adnan Custovic Background The term “atopic march” has been used to imply a natural progression of a cascade of symptoms from eczema to asthma and rhinitis through childhood. We hypothesize that this expression does not adequately describe the natural history of eczema, wheeze, and rhinitis during childhood

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