Author Archives: PLoS Medicine

Antimicrobial resistance: The complex challenge of measurement to inform policy and the public

by Didier Wernli, Peter S. Jørgensen, Stephan Harbarth, Scott P. Carroll, Ramanan Laxminarayan, Nicolas Levrat, John-Arne Røttingen, Didier Pittet Didier Wernli and colleagues discuss the role of monitoring in countering antimicrobial resistance.

Posted in Journal Watch | Comments closed

Benefits and safety of gabapentinoids in chronic low back pain: A systematic review and…

by Harsha Shanthanna, Ian Gilron, Manikandan Rajarathinam, Rizq AlAmri, Sriganesh Kamath, Lehana Thabane, Philip J. Devereaux, Mohit Bhandari Background and objective Chronic Low Back Pain (CLBP) is very common, with a lifetime prevalence between 51% and 80%. In majority, it is nonspecific in nature and multifactorial in etiology. Pregabalin (PG) and Gabapentin (GB) are gabapentinoids that have demonstrated benefit in neuropathic pain conditions. Despite no clear rationale, they are increasingly used for nonspecific CLBP.

Posted in Journal Watch | Comments closed

Lay worker-administered behavioral treatments for psychological distress in resource-limited…

by Alexander C. Tsai In this Perspective on the study by Bryant and colleagues, Alex Tsai discusses the evidence supporting lay worker-administered, behavioral interventions for women survivors of interpersonal violence.

Posted in Journal Watch | Comments closed

Effectiveness of a brief behavioural intervention on psychological distress among women with a…

by Richard A. Bryant, Alison Schafer, Katie S. Dawson, Dorothy Anjuri, Caroline Mulili, Lincoln Ndogoni, Phiona Koyiet, Marit Sijbrandij, Jeannette Ulate, Melissa Harper Shehadeh, Dusan Hadzi-Pavlovic, Mark van Ommeren Background Gender-based violence (GBV) represents a major cause of psychological morbidity worldwide, and particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Although there are effective treatments for common mental disorders associated with GBV, they typically require lengthy treatment programs that may limit scaling up in LMICs. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of a new 5-session behavioural treatment called Problem Management Plus (PM+) that lay community workers can be taught to deliver.

Posted in Journal Watch | Tagged , | Comments closed

Pregnant and breastfeeding women: A priority population for HIV viral load monitoring

by Landon Myer, Shaffiq Essajee, Laura N. Broyles, D. Heather Watts, Maia Lesosky, Wafaa M. El-Sadr, Elaine J.

Posted in Journal Watch | Comments closed

Impact of fortified versus unfortified lipid-based supplements on morbidity and nutritional…

by Stefan A. Unger, Saikou Drammeh, Jahid Hasan, Kabiru Ceesay, Edrisa Sinjanka, Sainey Beyai, Bakary Sonko, Bai Lamin Dondeh, Anthony J. Fulford, Sophie E. Moore, Andrew M.

Posted in Journal Watch | Comments closed

Assessing the impact of healthcare research: A systematic review of methodological frameworks

by Samantha Cruz Rivera, Derek G. Kyte, Olalekan Lee Aiyegbusi, Thomas J. Keeley, Melanie J. Calvert Background Increasingly, researchers need to demonstrate the impact of their research to their sponsors, funders, and fellow academics. However, the most appropriate way of measuring the impact of healthcare research is subject to debate

Posted in Journal Watch | Tagged , | Comments closed

Malaria, malnutrition, and birthweight: A meta-analysis using individual participant data

by Jordan E. Cates, Holger W. Unger, Valerie Briand, Nadine Fievet, Innocent Valea, Halidou Tinto, Umberto D’Alessandro, Sarah H. Landis, Seth Adu-Afarwuah, Kathryn G.

Posted in Journal Watch | Tagged | Comments closed

Harmonization of community health worker programs for HIV: A four-country qualitative study in…

by Jan-Walter De Neve, Henri Garrison-Desany, Kathryn G. Andrews, Nour Sharara, Chantelle Boudreaux, Roopan Gill, Pascal Geldsetzer, Maria Vaikath, Till Bärnighausen, Thomas J. Bossert Background Community health worker (CHW) programs are believed to be poorly coordinated, poorly integrated into national health systems, and lacking long-term support. Duplication of services, fragmentation, and resource limitations may have impeded the potential impact of CHWs for achieving HIV goals.

Posted in Journal Watch | Comments closed

Evaluation of novel computerized tomography scoring systems in human traumatic brain injury: An…

by Eric Peter Thelin, David W. Nelson, Juho Vehviläinen, Harriet Nyström, Riku Kivisaari, Jari Siironen, Mikael Svensson, Markus B. Skrifvars, Bo-Michael Bellander, Rahul Raj Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality. Computerized tomography (CT) scanning of the brain is essential for diagnostic screening of intracranial injuries in need of neurosurgical intervention, but may also provide information concerning patient prognosis and enable baseline risk stratification in clinical trials.

Posted in Journal Watch | Comments closed

Identification of factors associated with stillbirth in the Indian state of Bihar using verbal…

by Rakhi Dandona, G. Anil Kumar, Amit Kumar, Priyanka Singh, Sibin George, Mohammad Akbar, Lalit Dandona Background India was estimated to have the largest numbers of stillbirths globally in 2015, and the Indian government has adopted a target of <10 stillbirths per 1,000 births by 2030 through the India Newborn Action Plan (INAP). The objective of this study was to use verbal autopsy interviews to examine factors associated with stillbirth in the Indian state of Bihar and make recommendations for the INAP to better inform the setting of priorities and actions to reduce stillbirths.</p> Methods and findings Verbal autopsy interviews were conducted for deaths including stillbirths that occurred from January 2011 to March 2014 in a sample of 109,689 households (87.1% participation) in 1,017 clusters representative of the state of Bihar. The Population Health Metrics Research Consortium shortened verbal autopsy questionnaire was used for each interview, and cause of death was assigned using the SmartVA automated algorithm. A stillbirth was defined as a foetal death with a gestation period of ≥28 weeks wherein the foetus did not show any sign of life.

Posted in Journal Watch | Tagged | Comments closed

Childhood adiposity and risk of type 1 diabetes: A Mendelian randomization study

by J. C. Censin, Christoph Nowak, Nicholas Cooper, Peter Bergsten, John A. Todd, Tove Fall Background The incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is increasing globally. One hypothesis is that increasing childhood obesity rates may explain part of this increase, but, as T1D is rare, intervention studies are challenging to perform

Posted in Journal Watch | Tagged , | Comments closed

Gestational diabetes mellitus and interpregnancy weight change: A population-based cohort study

by L. M. Sorbye, R. Skjaerven, K. Klungsoyr, N.

Posted in Journal Watch | Tagged | Comments closed

Counting stillbirths and achieving accountability: A global health priority

by Zulfiqar A. Bhutta In a Perspective, Zulfiqar Bhutta discusses the importance of regular and timely reporting on stillbirths.

Posted in Journal Watch | Comments closed