Author Archives: PLoS Medicine

From Checklists to Tools: Lowering the Barrier to Better Research Reporting

by The PLOS Medicine Editors

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The Missing Men: HIV Treatment Scale-Up and Life Expectancy in Sub-Saharan Africa

by Alexander C. Tsai, Mark J. Siedner

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Mass HIV Treatment and Sex Disparities in Life Expectancy: Demographic Surveillance in Rural…

by Jacob Bor, Sydney Rosen, Natsayi Chimbindi, Noah Haber, Kobus Herbst, Tinofa Mutevedzi, Frank Tanser, Deenan Pillay, Till Bärnighausen Background Women have better patient outcomes in HIV care and treatment than men in sub-Saharan Africa. We assessed—at the population level—whether and to what extent mass HIV treatment is associated with changes in sex disparities in adult life expectancy, a summary metric of survival capturing mortality across the full cascade of HIV care. We also determined sex-specific trends in HIV mortality and the distribution of HIV-related deaths in men and women prior to and at each stage of the clinical cascade. Methods and Findings Data were collected on all deaths occurring from 2001 to 2011 in a large population-based surveillance cohort (52,964 women and 45,688 men, ages 15 y and older) in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Cause of death was ascertained by verbal autopsy (93% response rate)

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The HIV Treatment Gap: Estimates of the Financial Resources Needed versus Available for…

by Arin Dutta, Catherine Barker, Ashley Kallarakal Background The World Health Organization (WHO) released revised guidelines in 2015 recommending that all people living with HIV, regardless of CD4 count, initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) upon diagnosis. However, few studies have projected the global resources needed for rapid scale-up of ART. Under the Health Policy Project, we conducted modeling analyses for 97 countries to estimate eligibility for and numbers on ART from 2015 to 2020, along with the facility-level financial resources required. We compared the estimated financial requirements to estimated funding available.

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Care that Matters: Quality Measurement and Health Care

by Barry G. Saver, Stephen A. Martin, Ronald N. Adler, Lucy M. Candib, Konstantinos E

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Selection of an HLA-C*03:04-Restricted HIV-1 p24 Gag Sequence Variant Is Associated with Viral…

by Angelique Hölzemer, Christina F. Thobakgale, Camilo A. Jimenez Cruz, Wilfredo F. Garcia-Beltran, Jonathan M. Carlson, Nienke H.

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The First Use of the Global Oral Cholera Vaccine Emergency Stockpile: Lessons from South Sudan

by Abdinasir Abubakar, Andrew S. Azman, John Rumunu, Iza Ciglenecki, Trina Helderman, Haley West, Justin Lessler, David A. Sack, Stephen Martin, William Perea, Dominique Legros, Francisco J. Luquero

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The PneuCarriage Project: A Multi-Centre Comparative Study to Identify the Best Serotyping…

by Catherine Satzke, Eileen M. Dunne, Barbara D. Porter, Keith P. Klugman, E.

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Venous Thrombosis Risk after Cast Immobilization of the Lower Extremity: Derivation and…

by Banne Nemeth, Raymond A. van Adrichem, Astrid van Hylckama Vlieg, Paolo Bucciarelli, Ida Martinelli, Trevor Baglin, Frits R. Rosendaal, Saskia le Cessie, Suzanne C. Cannegieter Background Guidelines and clinical practice vary considerably with respect to thrombosis prophylaxis during plaster cast immobilization of the lower extremity. Identifying patients at high risk for the development of venous thromboembolism (VTE) would provide a basis for considering individual thromboprophylaxis use and planning treatment studies.The aims of this study were (1) to investigate the predictive value of genetic and environmental risk factors, levels of coagulation factors, and other biomarkers for the occurrence of VTE after cast immobilization of the lower extremity and (2) to develop a clinical prediction tool for the prediction of VTE in plaster cast patients.

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Dispersion of the HIV-1 Epidemic in Men Who Have Sex with Men in the Netherlands: A Combined…

by Daniela Bezemer, Anne Cori, Oliver Ratmann, Ard van Sighem, Hillegonda S. Hermanides, Bas E. Dutilh, Luuk Gras, Nuno Rodrigues Faria, Rob van den Hengel, Ashley J. Duits, Peter Reiss, Frank de Wolf, Christophe Fraser, ATHENA observational cohort Background The HIV-1 subtype B epidemic amongst men who have sex with men (MSM) is resurgent in many countries despite the widespread use of effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). In this combined mathematical and phylogenetic study of observational data, we aimed to find out the extent to which the resurgent epidemic is the result of newly introduced strains or of growth of already circulating strains

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Shortening Turnaround Times for Newborn HIV Testing in Rural Tanzania: A Report from the Field

by Sabina Manumbu, Luke R. Smart, Anna Mwale, Kedar S. Mate, Jennifer A. Downs

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Upgrading a Piped Water Supply from Intermittent to Continuous Delivery and Association with…

by Ayse Ercumen, Benjamin F. Arnold, Emily Kumpel, Zachary Burt, Isha Ray, Kara Nelson, John M. Colford Background Intermittent delivery of piped water can lead to waterborne illness through contamination in the pipelines or during household storage, use of unsafe water sources during intermittencies, and limited water availability for hygiene. We assessed the association between continuous versus intermittent water supply and waterborne diseases, child mortality, and weight for age in Hubli-Dharwad, India. Methods and Findings We conducted a matched cohort study with multivariate matching to identify intermittent and continuous supply areas with comparable characteristics in Hubli-Dharwad

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Strategies for Understanding and Reducing the Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale Hypnozoite…

by Leanne J. Robinson, Rahel Wampfler, Inoni Betuela, Stephan Karl, Michael T. White, Connie S. N. Li Wai Suen, Natalie E

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Water Supply Interruptions and Suspected Cholera Incidence: A Time-Series Regression in the…

by Aurélie Jeandron, Jaime Mufitini Saidi, Alois Kapama, Manu Burhole, Freddy Birembano, Thierry Vandevelde, Antonio Gasparrini, Ben Armstrong, Sandy Cairncross, Jeroen H. J. Ensink Background The eastern provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo have been identified as endemic areas for cholera transmission, and despite continuous control efforts, they continue to experience regular cholera outbreaks that occasionally spread to the rest of the country. In a region where access to improved water sources is particularly poor, the question of which improvements in water access should be prioritized to address cholera transmission remains unresolved. This study aimed at investigating the temporal association between water supply interruptions and Cholera Treatment Centre (CTC) admissions in a medium-sized town

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