by Alexander C. Tsai, Mark Tomlinson
Author Archives: PLoS Medicine
by Meghan A. Bohren, Joshua P. Vogel, Erin C. Hunter, Olha Lutsiv, Suprita K.
by Miguel W. Tregnaghi, Xavier Sáez-Llorens, Pio López, Hector Abate, Enrique Smith, Adriana Pósleman, Arlene Calvo, Digna Wong, Carlos Cortes-Barbosa, Ana Ceballos, Marcelo Tregnaghi, Alexandra Sierra, Mirna Rodriguez, Marisol Troitiño, Carlos Carabajal, Andrea Falaschi, Ana Leandro, Maria Mercedes Castrejón, Alejandro Lepetic, Patricia Lommel, William P. Hausdorff, Dorota Borys, Javier Ruiz Guiñazú, Eduardo Ortega-Barría, Juan P. Yarzábal, Lode Schuerman, COMPAS Group
by William A. Wells, Mukund Uplekar, Madhukar Pai
by Louis Grandjean, Robert H. Gilman, Laura Martin, Esther Soto, Beatriz Castro, Sonia Lopez, Jorge Coronel, Edith Castillo, Valentina Alarcon, Virginia Lopez, Angela San Miguel, Neyda Quispe, Luis Asencios, Christopher Dye, David A. J. Moore Background The “fitness” of an infectious pathogen is defined as the ability of the pathogen to survive, reproduce, be transmitted, and cause disease.
by Corrado Cancedda, Paul E. Farmer, Vanessa Kerry, Tej Nuthulaganti, Kirstin W. Scott, Eric Goosby, Agnes Binagwaho
by Søren D. Østergaard, Shubhabrata Mukherjee, Stephen J. Sharp, Petroula Proitsi, Luca A. Lotta, Felix Day, John R. B.
by David Wilson There is evidence that HIV prevention programs for sex workers, especially female sex workers, are cost-effective in several contexts, including many western countries, Thailand, India, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya, and Zimbabwe. The evidence that sex worker HIV prevention programs work must not inspire complacency but rather a renewed effort to expand, intensify, and maximize their impact. The PLOS Collection “Focus on Delivery and Scale: Achieving HIV Impact with Sex Workers” highlights major challenges to scaling-up sex worker HIV prevention programs, noting the following: sex worker HIV prevention programs are insufficiently guided by understanding of epidemic transmission dynamics, situation analyses, and programmatic mapping; sex worker HIV and sexually transmitted infection services receive limited domestic financing in many countries; many sex worker HIV prevention programs are inadequately codified to ensure consistency and quality; and many sex worker HIV prevention programs have not evolved adequately to address informal sex workers, male and transgender sex workers, and mobile- and internet-based sex workers. Based on the wider collection of papers, this article presents three major clusters of recommendations: (i) HIV programs focused on sex workers should be prioritized, developed, and implemented based on robust evidence; (ii) national political will and increased funding are needed to increase coverage of effective sex worker HIV prevention programs in low and middle income countries; and (iii) comprehensive, integrated, and rapidly evolving HIV programs are needed to ensure equitable access to health services for individuals involved in all forms of sex work.
by Stefan Flasche, Albert Jan Van Hoek, David Goldblatt, W. John Edmunds, Katherine L. O’Brien, J. Anthony G. Scott, Elizabeth Miller
by Mingliang Chen, Qinglan Guo, Ye Wang, Ying Zou, Gangyi Wang, Xi Zhang, Xiaogang Xu, Miao Zhao, Fupin Hu, Di Qu, Min Chen, Minggui Wang Background Fluoroquinolones have been used broadly since the end of the 1980s and have been recommended for Neisseria meningitidis prophylaxis since 2005 in China. The aim of this study was to determine whether and how N. meningitidis antimicrobial susceptibility, serogroup prevalence, and clonal complex (CC) prevalence shifted in association with the introduction and expanding use of quinolones in Shanghai, a region with a traditionally high incidence of invasive disease due to N. meningitidis. Methods and Findings A total of 374 N
by Mahmud Abdulkader Mahmud, Mark Spigt, Afework Mulugeta Bezabih, Ignacio Lopez Pavon, Geert-Jan Dinant, Roman Blanco Velasco Background Intestinal parasitic infections are highly endemic among school-aged children in resource-limited settings. To lower their impact, preventive measures should be implemented that are sustainable with available resources. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of handwashing with soap and nail clipping on the prevention of intestinal parasite reinfections. Methods and Findings In this trial, 367 parasite-negative school-aged children (aged 6–15 y) were randomly assigned to receive both, one or the other, or neither of the interventions in a 2 × 2 factorial design. Assignment sequence was concealed.
by Jayadeep Patra, Mehak Bhatia, Wilson Suraweera, Shaun K. Morris, Cyril Patra, Prakash C. Gupta, Prabhat Jha Background According to WHO Global Health Estimates, tuberculosis (TB) is among the top ten causes of global mortality and ranks second after cardiovascular disease in most high-burden regions. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we investigated the role of second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure as a risk factor for TB among children and adults. Methods and Findings We performed a systematic literature search of PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar up to August 31, 2014
by Barnabas J. Gilbert, Vikram Patel, Paul E. Farmer, Chunling Lu
by Carey E. Gleason, N. Maritza Dowling, Whitney Wharton, JoAnn E. Manson, Virginia M. Miller, Craig S.