Author Archives: PLoS Medicine

How Has the Age-Related Process of Overweight or Obesity Development Changed over Time?…

by William Johnson, Leah Li, Diana Kuh, Rebecca Hardy Background There is a paucity of information on secular trends in the age-related process by which people develop overweight or obesity. Utilizing longitudinal data in the United Kingdom birth cohort studies, we investigated shifts over the past nearly 70 years in the distribution of body mass index (BMI) and development of overweight or obesity across childhood and adulthood. Methods and Findings The sample comprised 56,632 participants with 273,843 BMI observations in the 1946 Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development (NSHD; ages 2–64 years), 1958 National Child Development Study (NCDS; 7–50), 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS; 10–42), 1991 Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; 7–18), or 2001 Millennium Cohort Study (MCS; 3–11). Growth references showed a secular trend toward positive skewing of the BMI distribution at younger ages. During childhood, the 50th centiles for all studies lay in the middle of the International Obesity Task Force normal weight range, but during adulthood, the age when a 50th centile first entered the overweight range (i.e., 25–29.9 kg/m2) decreased across NSHD, NCDS, and BCS from 41 to 33 to 30 years in males and 48 to 44 to 41 years in females

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The Health System and Population Health Implications of Large-Scale Diabetes Screening in…

by Sanjay Basu, Christopher Millett, Sandeep Vijan, Rodney A. Hayward, Sanjay Kinra, Rahoul Ahuja, John S. Yudkin Background Like a growing number of rapidly developing countries, India has begun to develop a system for large-scale community-based screening for diabetes. We sought to identify the implications of using alternative screening instruments to detect people with undiagnosed type 2 diabetes among diverse populations across India. Methods and Findings We developed and validated a microsimulation model that incorporated data from 58 studies from across the country into a nationally representative sample of Indians aged 25–65 y old

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An Unsupported Preference for Intravenous Antibiotics

by Ho Kwong Li, Ambrose Agweyu, Mike English, Philip Bejon

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Setting International Standards for the Management of Public Health Pesticides

by Henk van den Berg, Rajpal Singh Yadav, Morteza Zaim

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Use of Fixed Dose Combination (FDC) Drugs in India: Central Regulatory Approval and Sales of…

by Patricia McGettigan, Peter Roderick, Rushikesh Mahajan, Abhay Kadam, Allyson M. Pollock Background In 2012, an Indian parliamentary committee reported that manufacturing licenses for large numbers of fixed dose combination (FDC) drugs had been issued by state authorities without prior approval of the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (CDSCO) in violation of rules, and considered that some ambiguity until 1 May 2002 about states’ powers might have contributed. To our knowledge, no systematic enquiry has been undertaken to determine if evidence existed to support these findings. We investigated CDSCO approvals for and availability of oral FDC drugs in four therapeutic areas: analgesia (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs]), diabetes (metformin), depression/anxiety (anti-depressants/benzodiazepines), and psychosis (anti-psychotics). Methods and Findings This was an ecologic study with a time-trend analysis of FDC sales volumes (2007–2012) and a cross-sectional examination of 2011–2012 data to establish the numbers of formulations on the market with and without a record of CDSCO approval (“approved” and “unapproved”), their branded products, and sales volumes

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Correction: Improving Men’s Participation in Preventing Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV…

by Wessel van den Berg, Kirsty Brittain, Gareth Mercer, Dean Peacock, Kathryn Stinson, Hanna Janson, Vuyiseka Dubula

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A Global Biomedical R&D Fund and Mechanism for Innovations of Public Health Importance

by Manica Balasegaram, Christian Bréchot, Jeremy Farrar, David Heymann, Nirmal Ganguly, Martin Khor, Yves Lévy, Precious Matsoso, Ren Minghui, Bernard Pécoul, Liu Peilong, Marcel Tanner, John-Arne Røttingen

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Screening and Treating UN Peacekeepers to Prevent the Introduction of Artemisinin-Resistant…

by Stan Houston, Adam Houston

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Defining the In Vivo Phenotype of Artemisinin-Resistant Falciparum Malaria: A Modelling…

by Lisa J. White, Jennifer A. Flegg, Aung Pyae Phyo, Ja Hser Wiladpai-ngern, Delia Bethell, Christopher Plowe, Tim Anderson, Standwell Nkhoma, Shalini Nair, Rupam Tripura, Kasia Stepniewska, Wirichada Pan-Ngum, Kamolrat Silamut, Ben S. Cooper, Yoel Lubell, Elizabeth A. Ashley, Chea Nguon, François Nosten, Nicholas J.

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HIV Shedding from Male Circumcision Wounds in HIV-Infected Men: A Prospective Cohort Study

by Aaron A. R. Tobian, Godfrey Kigozi, Jordyn Manucci, Mary K. Grabowski, David Serwadda, Richard Musoke, Andrew D. Redd, Fred Nalugoda, Steven J.

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Research Priorities to Improve the Management of Acute Malnutrition in Infants Aged Less Than…

by Chloe Angood, Marie McGrath, Sagar Mehta, Martha Mwangome, Mary Lung’aho, Dominique Roberfroid, Abigail Perry, Caroline Wilkinson, Anne-Dominique Israel, Cecile Bizouerne, Rukhsana Haider, Andrew Seal, James A. Berkley, Marko Kerac, MAMI Working Group Collaborators

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The Guyana Diabetes and Foot Care Project: A Complex Quality Improvement Intervention to…

by Julia Lowe, R. Gary Sibbald, Nashwah Y. Taha, Gerald Lebovic, Carlos Martin, Indira Bhoj, Rolinda Kirton, Brian Ostrow, the Guyana Diabetes and Foot Care Project Team

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Bringing Access to the Full Spectrum of Cancer Research: A Call for Papers

by The PLOS Medicine Editors

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How to Get All Trials Reported: Audit, Better Data, and Individual Accountability

by Ben Goldacre

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