by Danielle C. M. Belgrave, Raquel Granell, Angela Simpson, John Guiver, Christopher Bishop, Iain Buchan, A. John Henderson, Adnan Custovic Background The term “atopic march” has been used to imply a natural progression of a cascade of symptoms from eczema to asthma and rhinitis through childhood. We hypothesize that this expression does not adequately describe the natural history of eczema, wheeze, and rhinitis during childhood
Author Archives: PLoS Medicine
by Katy B. Kozhimannil, Mariana C. Arcaya, S. V. Subramanian Background Cesarean delivery is the most common inpatient surgery in the United States, where 1.3 million cesarean sections occur annually, and rates vary widely by hospital.
by Gordon C. S. Smith
by John P. A. Ioannidis
by James S. Yeh, Kirsten E. Austad, Jessica M. Franklin, Susan Chimonas, Eric G. Campbell, Jerry Avorn, Aaron S.
by Anne CC Lee, Aruna Chandran, Hadley K. Herbert, Naoko Kozuki, Perry Markell, Rashed Shah, Harry Campbell, Igor Rudan, Abdullah H. Baqui Background Inadequate illness recognition and access to antibiotics contribute to high case fatality from infections in young infants (<2 months) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We aimed to address three questions regarding access to treatment for young infant infections in LMICs: (1) Can frontline health workers accurately diagnose possible bacterial infection (pBI)?; (2) How available and affordable are antibiotics?; (3) How often are antibiotics procured without a prescription?</p> Methods and Findings We searched PubMed, Embase, WHO/Health Action International (HAI), databases, service provision assessments (SPAs), Demographic and Health Surveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, and grey literature with no date restriction until May 2014. Data were identified from 37 published studies, 46 HAI national surveys, and eight SPAs
by Karel G. M. Moons, Joris A. H. de Groot, Walter Bouwmeester, Yvonne Vergouwe, Susan Mallett, Douglas G
by Beate Karges, Joachim Rosenbauer, Thomas Kapellen, Verena M. Wagner, Edith Schober, Wolfram Karges, Reinhard W. Holl Background Severe hypoglycemia is a major complication of insulin treatment in patients with type 1 diabetes, limiting full realization of glycemic control. It has been shown in the past that low levels of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), a marker of average plasma glucose, predict a high risk of severe hypoglycemia, but it is uncertain whether this association still exists. Based on advances in diabetes technology and pharmacotherapy, we hypothesized that the inverse association between severe hypoglycemia and HbA1c has decreased in recent years.
by Fabrizio Faggiano, Elias Allara, Fabrizia Giannotta, Roberta Molinar, Harry Sumnall, Reinout Wiers, Susan Michie, Linda Collins, Patricia Conrod
by Natalie Thurtle, Jane Greig, Lauren Cooney, Yona Amitai, Cono Ariti, Mary Jean Brown, Michael J. Kosnett, Krystel Moussally, Nasir Sani-Gwarzo, Henry Akpan, Leslie Shanks, Paul I. Dargan Background In 2010, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) discovered extensive lead poisoning impacting several thousand children in rural northern Nigeria. An estimated 400 fatalities had occurred over 3 mo.
by Thomas J. Hwang, Salmaan Keshavjee
by Jonathan Zipursky, Erin M. Macdonald, Simon Hollands, Tara Gomes, Muhammad M. Mamdani, J. Michael Paterson, Nina Lathia, David N. Juurlink Background Some evidence suggests that proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are an under-appreciated risk factor for hypomagnesemia
by Isuru Ranasinghe, Yongfei Wang, Kumar Dharmarajan, Angela F. Hsieh, Susannah M. Bernheim, Harlan M. Krumholz Background Patients aged ≥65 years are vulnerable to readmissions due to a transient period of generalized risk after hospitalization. However, whether young and middle-aged adults share a similar risk pattern is uncertain
by Raquel González, Meghna Desai, Eusebio Macete, Peter Ouma, Mwaka A. Kakolwa, Salim Abdulla, John J. Aponte, Helder Bulo, Abdunoor M. Kabanywanyi, Abraham Katana, Sonia Maculuve, Alfredo Mayor, Arsenio Nhacolo, Kephas Otieno, Golbahar Pahlavan, María Rupérez, Esperança Sevene, Laurence Slutsker, Anifa Vala, John Williamsom, Clara Menéndez Background Intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is recommended for malaria prevention in HIV-negative pregnant women, but it is contraindicated in HIV-infected women taking daily cotrimoxazole prophylaxis (CTXp) because of potential added risk of adverse effects associated with taking two antifolate drugs simultaneously.