Author Archives: PLoS Medicine

A Physicians’ Wish List for the Clinical Application of Intestinal Metagenomics

by Ingeborg Klymiuk, Christoph Högenauer, Bettina Halwachs, Gerhard G. Thallinger, W. Florian Fricke, Christoph Steininger

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Fialuridine Induces Acute Liver Failure in Chimeric TK-NOG Mice: A Model for Detecting Hepatic…

by Dan Xu, Toshi Nishimura, Sachiko Nishimura, Haili Zhang, Ming Zheng, Ying-Ying Guo, Marylin Masek, Sara A. Michie, Jeffrey Glenn, Gary Peltz Background Seven of 15 clinical trial participants treated with a nucleoside analogue (fialuridine [FIAU]) developed acute liver failure. Five treated participants died, and two required a liver transplant. Preclinical toxicology studies in mice, rats, dogs, and primates did not provide any indication that FIAU would be hepatotoxic in humans. Therefore, we investigated whether FIAU-induced liver toxicity could be detected in chimeric TK-NOG mice with humanized livers

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HIV Monoclonal Antibodies: A New Opportunity to Further Reduce Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission

by Yegor Voronin, Lynne M. Mofenson, Coleen K. Cunningham, Mary G. Fowler, Pontiano Kaleebu, Elizabeth J. McFarland, Jeffrey T.

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Changes in HIV Incidence among People Who Inject Drugs in Taiwan following Introduction of a…

by Yen-Fang Huang, Jyh-Yuan Yang, Kenrad E. Nelson, Hsu-Sung Kuo, Chin-Yin Lew-Ting, Chin-Hui Yang, Chang-Hsun Chen, Feng-Yee Chang, Hui-Rong Liu Background Harm reduction strategies for combating HIV epidemics among people who inject drugs (PWID) have been implemented in several countries. However, large-scale studies using sensitive measurements of HIV incidence and intervention exposures in defined cohorts are rare. The aim of this study was to determine the association between harm reduction programs and HIV incidence among PWID. Methods and Findings The study included two populations.

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Geographical Inequalities in Use of Improved Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation across…

by Rachel L. Pullan, Matthew C. Freeman, Peter W. Gething, Simon J. Brooker Background Understanding geographic inequalities in coverage of drinking-water supply and sanitation (WSS) will help track progress towards universal coverage of water and sanitation by identifying marginalized populations, thus helping to control a large number of infectious diseases

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The Use of Preliminary Scientific Evidence in Public Health: A Case Study of XMRV

by Kumanan Wilson, Katherine Atkinson, Jennifer Keelan

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Regional Changes in Charcoal-Burning Suicide Rates in East/Southeast Asia from 1995 to 2011: A…

by Shu-Sen Chang, Ying-Yeh Chen, Paul S. F. Yip, Won Jin Lee, Akihito Hagihara, David Gunnell Background Suicides by carbon monoxide poisoning resulting from burning barbecue charcoal reached epidemic levels in Hong Kong and Taiwan within 5 y of the first reported cases in the early 2000s. The objectives of this analysis were to investigate (i) time trends and regional patterns of charcoal-burning suicide throughout East/Southeast Asia during the time period 1995–2011 and (ii) whether any rises in use of this method were associated with increases in overall suicide rates.

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Early Detection, Curative Treatment, and Survival Rates for Hepatocellular Carcinoma…

by Amit G. Singal, Anjana Pillai, Jasmin Tiro Background Surveillance for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has level I evidence among patients with hepatitis B but only level II evidence in patients with cirrhosis. This lack of randomized data has spurred questions regarding the utility of HCC surveillance in this patient population; however, lack of randomized data does not equate to a lack of data supporting the efficacy of surveillance. The aim of our study was to determine the effect of HCC surveillance on early stage tumor detection, receipt of curative therapy, and overall survival in patients with cirrhosis.

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Water, Sanitation, Hygiene, and Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection: A Systematic Review and…

by Eric C. Strunz, David G. Addiss, Meredith E. Stocks, Stephanie Ogden, Jürg Utzinger, Matthew C.

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Representation and Misrepresentation of Scientific Evidence in Contemporary Tobacco Regulation:…

by Selda Ulucanlar, Gary J. Fooks, Jenny L. Hatchard, Anna B. Gilmore Background Standardised packaging (SP) of tobacco products is an innovative tobacco control measure opposed by transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) whose responses to the UK government’s public consultation on SP argued that evidence was inadequate to support implementing the measure.

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How Can Journals Respond to Threats of Libel Litigation?

by Nav Persaud, Thom Ringer, Trudo Lemmens

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Lung Function and Incidence of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease after Improved Cooking…

by Yumin Zhou, Yimin Zou, Xiaochen Li, Shuyun Chen, Zhuxiang Zhao, Fang He, Weifeng Zou, Qiuping Luo, Wenxi Li, Yiling Pan, Xiaoliang Deng, Xiaoping Wang, Rong Qiu, Shiliang Liu, Jingping Zheng, Nanshan Zhong, Pixin Ran Background Biomass smoke is associated with the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but few studies have elaborated approaches to reduce the risk of COPD from biomass burning. The purpose of this study was to determine whether improved cooking fuels and ventilation have effects on pulmonary function and the incidence of COPD. Methods and Findings A 9-y prospective cohort study was conducted among 996 eligible participants aged at least 40 y from November 1, 2002, through November 30, 2011, in 12 villages in southern China. Interventions were implemented starting in 2002 to improve kitchen ventilation (by providing support and instruction for improving biomass stoves or installing exhaust fans) and to promote the use of clean fuels (i.e., biogas) instead of biomass for cooking (by providing support and instruction for installing household biogas digesters); questionnaire interviews and spirometry tests were performed in 2005, 2008, and 2011.

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Assessing Causality in the Association between Child Adiposity and Physical Activity Levels: A…

by Rebecca C. Richmond, George Davey Smith, Andy R. Ness, Marcel den Hoed, George McMahon, Nicholas J. Timpson Background Cross-sectional studies have shown that objectively measured physical activity is associated with childhood adiposity, and a strong inverse dose–response association with body mass index (BMI) has been found. However, few studies have explored the extent to which this association reflects reverse causation

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The Impact of Pyrethroid Resistance on the Efficacy of Insecticide-Treated Bed Nets against…

by Clare Strode, Sarah Donegan, Paul Garner, Ahmad Ali Enayati, Janet Hemingway Background Pyrethroid insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) help contribute to reducing malaria deaths in Africa, but their efficacy is threatened by insecticide resistance in some malaria mosquito vectors. We therefore assessed the evidence that resistance is attenuating the effect of ITNs on entomological outcomes. Methods and Findings We included laboratory and field studies of African malaria vectors that measured resistance at the time of the study and used World Health Organization–recommended impregnation regimens. We reported mosquito mortality, blood feeding, induced exophily (premature exit of mosquitoes from the hut), deterrence, time to 50% or 95% knock-down, and percentage knock-down at 60 min. Publications were searched from 1 January 1980 to 31 December 2013 using MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index, African Index Medicus, and CAB Abstracts.

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