Author Archives: PLoS Medicine

Evaluation of a Minimally Invasive Cell Sampling Device Coupled with Assessment of Trefoil…

by Caryn S. Ross-Innes, Irene Debiram-Beecham, Maria O’Donovan, Elaine Walker, Sibu Varghese, Pierre Lao-Sirieix, Laurence Lovat, Michael Griffin, Krish Ragunath, Rehan Haidry, Sarmed S. Sami, Philip Kaye, Marco Novelli, Babett Disep, Richard Ostler, Benoit Aigret, Bernard V. North, Pradeep Bhandari, Adam Haycock, Danielle Morris, Stephen Attwood, Anjan Dhar, Colin Rees, Matthew D.

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Correction: Evaluation of the Lung Cancer Risks at Which to Screen Ever- and Never-Smokers:…

by The PLOS Medicine Staff

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Hormonal Contraception and the Risk of HIV Acquisition: An Individual Participant Data…

by Charles S. Morrison, Pai-Lien Chen, Cynthia Kwok, Jared M. Baeten, Joelle Brown, Angela M. Crook, Lut Van Damme, Sinead Delany-Moretlwe, Suzanna C. Francis, Barbara A

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Uptake and Population-Level Impact of Expedited Partner Therapy (EPT) on Chlamydia trachomatis…

by Matthew R. Golden, Roxanne P. Kerani, Mark Stenger, James P. Hughes, Mark Aubin, Cheryl Malinski, King K. Holmes Background Expedited partner therapy (EPT), the practice of treating the sex partners of persons with sexually transmitted infections without their medical evaluation, increases partner treatment and decreases gonorrhea and chlamydia reinfection rates

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Randomized Controlled Trials in Environmental Health Research: Unethical or Underutilized?

by Ryan W. Allen, Prabjit K. Barn, Bruce P. Lanphear

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Association between Respiratory Syncytial Virus Activity and Pneumococcal Disease in Infants: A…

by Daniel M. Weinberger, Keith P. Klugman, Claudia A. Steiner, Lone Simonsen, Cécile Viboud Background The importance of bacterial infections following respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) remains unclear.

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Efficacy of Neonatal HBV Vaccination on Liver Cancer and Other Liver Diseases over 30-Year…

by Chunfeng Qu, Taoyang Chen, Chunsun Fan, Qimin Zhan, Yuting Wang, Jianhua Lu, Ling-ling Lu, Zhengping Ni, Fei Huang, Hongyu Yao, Jian Zhu, Jian Fan, Yuanrong Zhu, Zhiyuan Wu, Guoting Liu, Wenhong Gao, Mengya Zang, Dongmei Wang, Min Dai, Chu Chieh Hsia, Yawei Zhang, Zongtang Sun Background Neonatal hepatitis B vaccination has been implemented worldwide to prevent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections. Its long-term protective efficacy on primary liver cancer (PLC) and other liver diseases has not been fully examined. Methods and Findings The Qidong Hepatitis B Intervention Study, a population-based, cluster randomized, controlled trial between 1985 and 1990 in Qidong, China, included 39,292 newborns who were randomly assigned to the vaccination group in which 38,366 participants completed the HBV vaccination series and 34,441 newborns who were randomly assigned to the control group in which the participants received neither a vaccine nor a placebo. However, 23,368 (67.8%) participants in the control group received catch-up vaccination at age 10–14 years.

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Artemisinin-Naphthoquine versus Artemether-Lumefantrine for Uncomplicated Malaria in Papua New…

by Moses Laman, Brioni R. Moore, John M. Benjamin, Gumul Yadi, Cathy Bona, Jonathan Warrel, Johanna H. Kattenberg, Tamarah Koleala, Laurens Manning, Bernadine Kasian, Leanne J. Robinson, Naomi Sambale, Lina Lorry, Stephan Karl, Wendy A.

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A Stronger Post-Publication Culture Is Needed for Better Science

by Hilda Bastian

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Genomic Predictors for Recurrence Patterns of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Model Derivation and…

by Ji Hoon Kim, Bo Hwa Sohn, Hyun-Sung Lee, Sang-Bae Kim, Jeong Eun Yoo, Yun-Yong Park, Woojin Jeong, Sung Sook Lee, Eun Sung Park, Ahmed Kaseb, Baek Hui Kim, Wan Bae Kim, Jong Eun Yeon, Kwan Soo Byun, In-Sun Chu, Sung Soo Kim, Xin Wei Wang, Snorri S. Thorgeirsson, John M. Luk, Koo Jeong Kang, Jeonghoon Heo, Young Nyun Park, Ju-Seog Lee Background Typically observed at 2 y after surgical resection, late recurrence is a major challenge in the management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We aimed to develop a genomic predictor that can identify patients at high risk for late recurrence and assess its clinical implications. Methods and Findings Systematic analysis of gene expression data from human liver undergoing hepatic injury and regeneration revealed a 233-gene signature that was significantly associated with late recurrence of HCC.

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Home-Based Versus Mobile Clinic HIV Testing and Counseling in Rural Lesotho: A…

by Niklaus Daniel Labhardt, Masetsibi Motlomelo, Bernard Cerutti, Karolin Pfeiffer, Mashaete Kamele, Michael A. Hobbins, Jochen Ehmer Background The success of HIV programs relies on widely accessible HIV testing and counseling (HTC) services at health facilities as well as in the community. Home-based HTC (HB-HTC) is a popular community-based approach to reach persons who do not test at health facilities. Data comparing HB-HTC to other community-based HTC approaches are very limited.

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World Health Organization Guidelines for Management of Acute Stress, PTSD, and Bereavement: Key…

by Wietse A. Tol, Corrado Barbui, Jonathan Bisson, Judith Cohen, Zeinab Hijazi, Lynne Jones, Joop T. V. M. de Jong, Nicola Magrini, Olayinka Omigbodun, Soraya Seedat, Derrick Silove, Renato Souza, Athula Sumathipala, Lakshmi Vijayakumar, Inka Weissbecker, Douglas Zatzick, Mark van Ommeren

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From Joint Thinking to Joint Action: A Call to Action on Improving Water, Sanitation, and…

by Yael Velleman, Elizabeth Mason, Wendy Graham, Lenka Benova, Mickey Chopra, Oona M. R. Campbell, Bruce Gordon, Sanjay Wijesekera, Sennen Hounton, Joanna Esteves Mills, Val Curtis, Kaosar Afsana, Sophie Boisson, Moke Magoma, Sandy Cairncross, Oliver Cumming

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Impact of Replacing Smear Microscopy with Xpert MTB/RIF for Diagnosing Tuberculosis in Brazil:…

by Betina Durovni, Valeria Saraceni, Susan van den Hof, Anete Trajman, Marcelo Cordeiro-Santos, Solange Cavalcante, Alexandre Menezes, Frank Cobelens Background Abundant evidence on Xpert MTB/RIF accuracy for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB) and rifampicin resistance has been produced, yet there are few data on the population benefit of its programmatic use. We assessed whether the implementation of Xpert MTB/RIF in routine conditions would (1) increase the notification rate of laboratory-confirmed pulmonary TB to the national notification system and (2) reduce the time to TB treatment initiation (primary endpoints). Methods and Findings We conducted a stepped-wedge cluster-randomized trial from 4 February to 4 October 2012 in 14 primary care laboratories in two Brazilian cities. Diagnostic specimens were included for 11,705 baseline (smear microscopy) and 12,522 intervention (Xpert MTB/RIF) patients presumed to have TB. Single-sputum-sample Xpert MTB/RIF replaced two-sputum-sample smear microscopy for routine diagnosis of pulmonary TB.

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