Author Archives: PLoS Medicine

Inequitable and Ineffective: Exclusion of Mental Health from the Post-2015 Development Agenda

by Alexander C. Tsai, Mark Tomlinson

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The Mistreatment of Women during Childbirth in Health Facilities Globally: A Mixed-Methods…

by Meghan A. Bohren, Joshua P. Vogel, Erin C. Hunter, Olha Lutsiv, Suprita K.

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Correction: Efficacy of Pneumococcal Nontypable Haemophilus influenzae Protein D Conjugate…

by Miguel W. Tregnaghi, Xavier Sáez-Llorens, Pio López, Hector Abate, Enrique Smith, Adriana Pósleman, Arlene Calvo, Digna Wong, Carlos Cortes-Barbosa, Ana Ceballos, Marcelo Tregnaghi, Alexandra Sierra, Mirna Rodriguez, Marisol Troitiño, Carlos Carabajal, Andrea Falaschi, Ana Leandro, Maria Mercedes Castrejón, Alejandro Lepetic, Patricia Lommel, William P. Hausdorff, Dorota Borys, Javier Ruiz Guiñazú, Eduardo Ortega-Barría, Juan P. Yarzábal, Lode Schuerman, COMPAS Group

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Achieving Systemic and Scalable Private Sector Engagement in Tuberculosis Care and Prevention…

by William A. Wells, Mukund Uplekar, Madhukar Pai

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Transmission of Multidrug-Resistant and Drug-Susceptible Tuberculosis within Households: A…

by Louis Grandjean, Robert H. Gilman, Laura Martin, Esther Soto, Beatriz Castro, Sonia Lopez, Jorge Coronel, Edith Castillo, Valentina Alarcon, Virginia Lopez, Angela San Miguel, Neyda Quispe, Luis Asencios, Christopher Dye, David A. J. Moore Background The “fitness” of an infectious pathogen is defined as the ability of the pathogen to survive, reproduce, be transmitted, and cause disease.

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Maximizing the Impact of Training Initiatives for Health Professionals in Low-Income Countries:…

by Corrado Cancedda, Paul E. Farmer, Vanessa Kerry, Tej Nuthulaganti, Kirstin W. Scott, Eric Goosby, Agnes Binagwaho

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Associations between Potentially Modifiable Risk Factors and Alzheimer Disease: A Mendelian…

by Søren D. Østergaard, Shubhabrata Mukherjee, Stephen J. Sharp, Petroula Proitsi, Luca A. Lotta, Felix Day, John R. B.

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HIV Programs for Sex Workers: Lessons and Challenges for Developing and Delivering Programs

by David Wilson There is evidence that HIV prevention programs for sex workers, especially female sex workers, are cost-effective in several contexts, including many western countries, Thailand, India, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya, and Zimbabwe. The evidence that sex worker HIV prevention programs work must not inspire complacency but rather a renewed effort to expand, intensify, and maximize their impact. The PLOS Collection “Focus on Delivery and Scale: Achieving HIV Impact with Sex Workers” highlights major challenges to scaling-up sex worker HIV prevention programs, noting the following: sex worker HIV prevention programs are insufficiently guided by understanding of epidemic transmission dynamics, situation analyses, and programmatic mapping; sex worker HIV and sexually transmitted infection services receive limited domestic financing in many countries; many sex worker HIV prevention programs are inadequately codified to ensure consistency and quality; and many sex worker HIV prevention programs have not evolved adequately to address informal sex workers, male and transgender sex workers, and mobile- and internet-based sex workers. Based on the wider collection of papers, this article presents three major clusters of recommendations: (i) HIV programs focused on sex workers should be prioritized, developed, and implemented based on robust evidence; (ii) national political will and increased funding are needed to increase coverage of effective sex worker HIV prevention programs in low and middle income countries; and (iii) comprehensive, integrated, and rapidly evolving HIV programs are needed to ensure equitable access to health services for individuals involved in all forms of sex work.

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The Potential for Reducing the Number of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Doses While Sustaining…

by Stefan Flasche, Albert Jan Van Hoek, David Goldblatt, W. John Edmunds, Katherine L. O’Brien, J. Anthony G. Scott, Elizabeth Miller

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Shifts in the Antibiotic Susceptibility, Serogroups, and Clonal Complexes of Neisseria…

by Mingliang Chen, Qinglan Guo, Ye Wang, Ying Zou, Gangyi Wang, Xi Zhang, Xiaogang Xu, Miao Zhao, Fupin Hu, Di Qu, Min Chen, Minggui Wang Background Fluoroquinolones have been used broadly since the end of the 1980s and have been recommended for Neisseria meningitidis prophylaxis since 2005 in China. The aim of this study was to determine whether and how N. meningitidis antimicrobial susceptibility, serogroup prevalence, and clonal complex (CC) prevalence shifted in association with the introduction and expanding use of quinolones in Shanghai, a region with a traditionally high incidence of invasive disease due to N. meningitidis. Methods and Findings A total of 374 N

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Efficacy of Handwashing with Soap and Nail Clipping on Intestinal Parasitic Infections in…

by Mahmud Abdulkader Mahmud, Mark Spigt, Afework Mulugeta Bezabih, Ignacio Lopez Pavon, Geert-Jan Dinant, Roman Blanco Velasco Background Intestinal parasitic infections are highly endemic among school-aged children in resource-limited settings. To lower their impact, preventive measures should be implemented that are sustainable with available resources. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of handwashing with soap and nail clipping on the prevention of intestinal parasite reinfections. Methods and Findings In this trial, 367 parasite-negative school-aged children (aged 6–15 y) were randomly assigned to receive both, one or the other, or neither of the interventions in a 2 × 2 factorial design. Assignment sequence was concealed.

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Exposure to Second-Hand Smoke and the Risk of Tuberculosis in Children and Adults: A Systematic…

by Jayadeep Patra, Mehak Bhatia, Wilson Suraweera, Shaun K. Morris, Cyril Patra, Prakash C. Gupta, Prabhat Jha Background According to WHO Global Health Estimates, tuberculosis (TB) is among the top ten causes of global mortality and ranks second after cardiovascular disease in most high-burden regions. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we investigated the role of second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure as a risk factor for TB among children and adults. Methods and Findings We performed a systematic literature search of PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar up to August 31, 2014

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Assessing Development Assistance for Mental Health in Developing Countries: 2007–2013

by Barnabas J. Gilbert, Vikram Patel, Paul E. Farmer, Chunling Lu

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Effects of Hormone Therapy on Cognition and Mood in Recently Postmenopausal Women: Findings…

by Carey E. Gleason, N. Maritza Dowling, Whitney Wharton, JoAnn E. Manson, Virginia M. Miller, Craig S.

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