Author Archives: PLoS Medicine

Association of Body Mass Index with DNA Methylation and Gene Expression in Blood Cells and…

by Michael M. Mendelson, Riccardo E. Marioni, Roby Joehanes, Chunyu Liu, Åsa K. Hedman, Stella Aslibekyan, Ellen W. Demerath, Weihua Guan, Degui Zhi, Chen Yao, Tianxiao Huan, Christine Willinger, Brian Chen, Paul Courchesne, Michael Multhaup, Marguerite R

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Mosquito-Disseminated Insecticide for Citywide Vector Control and Its Potential to Block…

by Fernando Abad-Franch, Elvira Zamora-Perea, Sérgio L. B. Luz Background Mosquito-borne viruses threaten public health worldwide. When the ratio of competent vectors to susceptible humans is low enough, the virus’s basic reproductive number (R0) falls below 1.0 (each case generating, on average, <1.0 additional case) and the infection fades out from the population. Conventional mosquito control tactics, however, seldom yield <i>R0 < 1.0.

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Sick Children Crying for Help: Fostering Adverse Event Reports

by Gordon D. Schiff In a Perspective, Gordon Schiff discusses the importance of appropriately analyzing adverse event reports.

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Patient Safety Incidents Involving Sick Children in Primary Care in England and Wales: A Mixed…

by Philippa Rees, Adrian Edwards, Colin Powell, Peter Hibbert, Huw Williams, Meredith Makeham, Ben Carter, Donna Luff, Gareth Parry, Anthony Avery, Aziz Sheikh, Liam Donaldson, Andrew Carson-Stevens Background The UK performs poorly relative to other economically developed countries on numerous indicators of care quality for children. The contribution of iatrogenic harm to these outcomes is unclear. As primary care is the first point of healthcare contact for most children, we sought to investigate the safety of care provided to children in this setting. Methods and Findings We undertook a mixed methods investigation of reports of primary care patient safety incidents involving sick children from England and Wales’ National Reporting and Learning System between 1 January 2005 and 1 December 2013.

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Population Pharmacokinetic Properties of Piperaquine in Falciparum Malaria: An Individual…

by Richard M. Hoglund, Lesley Workman, Michael D. Edstein, Nguyen Xuan Thanh, Nguyen Ngoc Quang, Issaka Zongo, Jean Bosco Ouedraogo, Steffen Borrmann, Leah Mwai, Christian Nsanzabana, Ric N. Price, Prabin Dahal, Nancy C. Sambol, Sunil Parikh, Francois Nosten, Elizabeth A.

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Reporting Items for Updated Clinical Guidelines: Checklist for the Reporting of Updated…

See the original article here:  Reporting Items for Updated Clinical Guidelines: Checklist for the Reporting of Updated…

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Socioeconomic Inequalities in Body Mass Index across Adulthood: Coordinated Analyses of…

by David Bann, William Johnson, Leah Li, Diana Kuh, Rebecca Hardy Background High body mass index (BMI) is an important contributor to the global burden of ill-health and health inequality. Lower socioeconomic position (SEP) in both childhood and adulthood is associated with higher adult BMI, but how these associations have changed across time is poorly understood. We used longitudinal data to examine how childhood and adult SEP relates to BMI across adulthood in three national British birth cohorts. Methods and Findings The sample comprised up to 22,810 participants with 77,115 BMI observations in the 1946 MRC National Survey of Health and Development (ages 20 to 60–64), the 1958 National Child Development Study (ages 23 to 50), and the 1970 British Cohort Study (ages 26 to 42). Harmonized social class-based SEP data (Registrar General’s Social Class) was ascertained in childhood (father’s class at 10/11 y) and adulthood (42/43 years), and BMI repeatedly across adulthood, spanning 1966 to 2012.

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Correction: Tumor Evolution in Two Patients with Basal-like Breast Cancer: A Retrospective…

by Katherine A. Hoadley, Marni B. Siegel, Krishna L. Kanchi, Christopher A.

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Zika Virus Infection as a Cause of Congenital Brain Abnormalities and Guillain–Barré…

by Fabienne Krauer, Maurane Riesen, Ludovic Reveiz, Olufemi T. Oladapo, Ruth Martínez-Vega, Teegwendé V. Porgo, Anina Haefliger, Nathalie J. Broutet, Nicola Low, WHO Zika Causality Working Group Background The World Health Organization (WHO) stated in March 2016 that there was scientific consensus that the mosquito-borne Zika virus was a cause of the neurological disorder Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) and of microcephaly and other congenital brain abnormalities based on rapid evidence assessments. Decisions about causality require systematic assessment to guide public health actions

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Effect of a Primary Care Walking Intervention with and without Nurse Support on Physical…

by Tess Harris, Sally M. Kerry, Elizabeth S. Limb, Christina R. Victor, Steve Iliffe, Michael Ussher, Peter H. Whincup, Ulf Ekelund, Julia Fox-Rushby, Cheryl Furness, Nana Anokye, Judith Ibison, Steve DeWilde, Lee David, Emma Howard, Rebecca Dale, Jaime Smith, Derek G.

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Biomarker-Defined Subsets of Common Diseases: Policy and Economic Implications of Orphan Drug…

by Aaron S. Kesselheim, Carolyn L. Treasure, Steven Joffe Aaron Kesselheim and colleagues examine orphan-designated drugs approved between 2009 and 2015 in the United States.

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Priority-Setting for Novel Drug Regimens to Treat Tuberculosis: An Epidemiologic Model

by Emily A. Kendall, Sourya Shrestha, Ted Cohen, Eric Nuermberger, Kelly E. Dooley, Lice Gonzalez-Angulo, Gavin J. Churchyard, Payam Nahid, Michael L. Rich, Cathy Bansbach, Thomas Forissier, Christian Lienhardt, David W.

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Artificially Sweetened Beverages and the Response to the Global Obesity Crisis

by Maria Carolina Borges, Maria Laura Louzada, Thiago Hérick de Sá, Anthony A. Laverty, Diana C. Parra, Josefa Maria Fellegger Garzillo, Carlos Augusto Monteiro, Christopher Millett Christopher Millett and colleagues argue that artificially sweetened beverages should not be promoted as part of a healthy diet.

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What Is the Purpose of the Orphan Drug Act?

by Matthew Herder Matthew Herder suggests it may be time to re-examine the purpose of the U.S. Orphan Drug Act.

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