by The PLOS Medicine Editors In this month’s editorial, the PLOS Medicine Editors announce an upcoming Special Issue, with Guest Editors Elaine Mardis and Marc Ladanyi, on actionable advances in research on the cancer genome.
Author Archives: PLoS Medicine
by Ronac Mamtani, James D. Lewis, Frank I. Scott, Tariq Ahmad, David S. Goldberg, Jashodeep Datta, Yu-Xiao Yang, Ben Boursi Background Several prior studies have found an association between statin use and reduced risk of colorectal cancer.
by Delan Devakumar, David Osrin In this perspective, Delan Devakumar and David Osrin discuss Abrahams and colleagues’ findings in the context of evidence about child homicide in different countries, and consider etiology along with implications for child protection and prevention.
by Neehar D. Parikh, Amit G. Singal In this Perspective, Neehar Parikh and Amit Singal discuss the advantages of the ITA.LI.CA staging system for prognoses of liver cancer developed by Alessandro Vitale and colleagues.
by Fabio Farinati, Alessandro Vitale, Gaya Spolverato, Timothy M. Pawlik, Teh-la Huo, Yun-Hsuan Lee, Anna Chiara Frigo, Anna Giacomin, Edoardo G. Giannini, Francesca Ciccarese, Fabio Piscaglia, Gian Lodovico Rapaccini, Mariella Di Marco, Eugenio Caturelli, Marco Zoli, Franco Borzio, Giuseppe Cabibbo, Martina Felder, Rodolfo Sacco, Filomena Morisco, Elisabetta Biasini, Francesco Giuseppe Foschi, Antonio Gasbarrini, Gianluca Svegliati Baroni, Roberto Virdone, Alberto Masotto, Franco Trevisani, Umberto Cillo, ITA.LI.CA study group Background Prognostic assessment in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains controversial. Using the Italian Liver Cancer (ITA.LI.CA) database as a training set, we sought to develop and validate a new prognostic system for patients with HCC.
by Benjamin A. Lopman, Duncan Steele, Carl D. Kirkwood, Umesh D. Parashar Globally, norovirus is associated with approximately one-fifth of all diarrhea cases, with similar prevalence in both children and adults, and is estimated to cause over 200,000 deaths annually in developing countries. Norovirus is an important pathogen in a number of high-priority domains: it is the most common cause of diarrheal episodes globally, the principal cause of foodborne disease outbreaks in the United States, a key health care–acquired infection, a common cause of travel-associated diarrhea, and a bane for deployed military troops.
by Amina Aitsi-Selmi, Virginia Murray On the 30th anniversary of the Chernobyl disaster, Amina Aitsi-Selmi and Virginia Murray reflect on the importance of disaster preparedness.
by Jenny E. Myers, Edward D. Johnstone In this Perspective on the study by Hannah Knight and colleagues, Jenny Myers and Edward Johnstone consider the implications of negative findings in a variable setting in which adverse events are rare.
by Hannah E. Knight, Jan H. van der Meulen, Ipek Gurol-Urganci, Gordon C. Smith, Amit Kiran, Steve Thornton, David Richmond, Alan Cameron, David A. Cromwell Background Concerns have been raised that a lack of senior obstetricians (“consultants”) on the labour ward outside normal hours may lead to worse outcomes among babies born during periods of reduced cover
by Jake Dunning, Foday Sahr, Amanda Rojek, Fiona Gannon, Gail Carson, Baimba Idriss, Thomas Massaquoi, Regina Gandi, Sebatu Joseph, Hassan K. Osman, Timothy J. G. Brooks, Andrew J.
by Emily M. Bucholz, Hannah A Krumholz, Harlan M. Krumholz Background Underweight patients are at higher risk of death after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) than normal weight patients; however, it is unclear whether this relationship is explained by confounding due to cachexia or other factors associated with low body mass index (BMI). This study aimed to answer two questions: (1) does comprehensive risk adjustment for comorbid illness and frailty measures explain the higher mortality after AMI in underweight patients, and (2) is the relationship between underweight and mortality also observed in patients with AMI who are otherwise without significant chronic illness and are presumably free of cachexia? Methods and Findings We analyzed data from the Cooperative Cardiovascular Project, a cohort-based study of Medicare beneficiaries hospitalized for AMI between January 1994 and February 1996 with 17 y of follow-up and detailed clinical information to compare short- and long-term mortality in underweight and normal weight patients (n = 57,574).
by Lisa A. Ronald, Margaret J. McGregor, Charlene Harrington, Allyson Pollock, Joel Lexchin Margaret McGregor and colleagues consider Bradford Hill’s framework for examining causation in observational research for the association between nursing home care quality and for-profit ownership.
by Roly Gosling, Lorenz von Seidlein Roly Gosling and Lorenz von Seidlein consider a potential future development plan for the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine.