Author Archives: PLoS Medicine

Dementia in the oldest old: Beyond Alzheimer disease

by Aimee L. Pierce, Claudia H. Kawas In a Perspective, Aimee Pierce and Claudia Kawas discuss risk factors and pathologies of dementia in the oldest-old.

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Development of an adaptive, personalized, and scalable dementia care program: Early findings…

by Katherine L. Possin, Jennifer Merrilees, Stephen J. Bonasera, Alissa Bernstein, Winston Chiong, Kirby Lee, Leslie Wilson, Sarah M. Hooper, Sarah Dulaney, Tamara Braley, Sutep Laohavanich, Julie E. Feuer, Amy M

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Association between fatty acid metabolism in the brain and Alzheimer disease neuropathology and…

by Stuart G. Snowden, Amera A. Ebshiana, Abdul Hye, Yang An, Olga Pletnikova, Richard O’Brien, John Troncoso, Cristina Legido-Quigley, Madhav Thambisetty Background The metabolic basis of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology and expression of AD symptoms is poorly understood. Omega-3 and -6 fatty acids have previously been linked to both protective and pathogenic effects in AD.

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Potentially modifiable lifestyle factors, cognitive reserve, and cognitive function in later…

by Linda Clare, Yu-Tzu Wu, Julia C. Teale, Catherine MacLeod, Fiona Matthews, Carol Brayne, Bob Woods, CFAS-Wales study team Background Potentially modifiable lifestyle factors may influence cognitive health in later life and offer potential to reduce the risk of cognitive decline and dementia. The concept of cognitive reserve has been proposed as a mechanism to explain individual differences in rates of cognitive decline, but its potential role as a mediating pathway has seldom been explored using data from large epidemiological studies. We explored the mediating effect of cognitive reserve on the cross-sectional association between lifestyle factors and cognitive function in later life using data from a population-based cohort of healthy older people.

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Age-related cognitive decline and associations with sex, education and apolipoprotein E…

by Darren M. Lipnicki, John D. Crawford, Rajib Dutta, Anbupalam Thalamuthu, Nicole A. Kochan, Gavin Andrews, M. Fernanda Lima-Costa, Erico Castro-Costa, Carol Brayne, Fiona E

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Genetic assessment of age-associated Alzheimer disease risk: Development and validation of a…

by Rahul S. Desikan, Chun Chieh Fan, Yunpeng Wang, Andrew J. Schork, Howard J. Cabral, L. Adrienne Cupples, Wesley K.

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<i>PLOS Medicine</i> 2016 Reviewer and Editorial Board Thank You

Read this article:  <i>PLOS Medicine</i> 2016 Reviewer and Editorial Board Thank You

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Effectiveness of an intervention to facilitate prompt referral to memory clinics in the United…

by Gill Livingston, Gianluca Baio, Andrew Sommerlad, Simon de Lusignan, Spyridon Poulimenos, Steve Morris, Greta Rait, Juanita Hoe Background Most people with dementia do not receive timely diagnosis, preventing them from making informed plans about their future and accessing services. Many countries have a policy to increase timely diagnosis, but trials aimed at changing general practitioner (GP) practice have been unsuccessful. We aimed to assess whether a GP’s personal letter, with an evidence-based leaflet about overcoming barriers to accessing help for memory problems—aimed at empowering patients and families—increases timely dementia diagnosis and patient presentation to general practice. Methods and finding Multicentre, cluster-randomised controlled trial with raters masked to an online computer-generated randomisation system assessing 1 y outcome.

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Early diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment and mild dementia through basic and instrumental…

by Elise Cornelis, Ellen Gorus, Ingo Beyer, Ivan Bautmans, Patricia De Vriendt Background Assessment of activities of daily living (ADL) is paramount to determine impairment in everyday functioning and to ensure accurate early diagnosis of neurocognitive disorders. Unfortunately, most common ADL tools are limited in their use in a diagnostic process. This study developed a new evaluation by adopting the items of the Katz Index (basic [b-] ADL) and Lawton Scale (instrumental [i-] ADL), defining them with the terminology of the International Classification of Human Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), adding the scoring system of the ICF, and adding the possibility to identify underlying causes of limitations in ADL. Methods and findings The construct validity, interrater reliability, and discriminative validity of this new evaluation were determined.

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Challenges and opportunities in understanding dementia and delirium in the acute hospital

by Thomas A. Jackson, John R. F. Gladman, Rowan H. Harwood, Alasdair M.

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Association of lifelong exposure to cognitive reserve-enhancing factors with dementia risk: A…

by Hui-Xin Wang, Stuart W. S. MacDonald, Serhiy Dekhtyar, Laura Fratiglioni Background Variation in the clinical manifestation of dementia has been associated with differences in cognitive reserve, although less is known about the cumulative effects of exposure to cognitive reserve factors over the life course. We examined the association of cognitive reserve-related factors over the lifespan with the risk of dementia in a community-based cohort of older adults.

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Mixed pathologies and neural reserve: Implications of complexity for Alzheimer disease drug…

by David A. Bennett In a Perspective, David Bennett makes a case for neural reserve to be considered as a therapeutic endpoint in clinical trials for dementia.

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Dementia incidence trend over 1992-2014 in the Netherlands: Analysis of primary care data

by Emma F. van Bussel, Edo Richard, Derk L. Arts, Astrid C. J. Nooyens, Preciosa M

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Rehabilitation for people living with dementia: A practical framework of positive support

by Linda Clare In a Perspective, Linda Clare proposes using a cognitive rehabilitation approach for people living with dementia.

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