Author Archives: PLoS Medicine

Geographical Inequalities and Social and Environmental Risk Factors for Under-Five Mortality in…

by Raphael E. Arku, James E. Bennett, Marcia C. Castro, Kofi Agyeman-Duah, Samilia E. Mintah, James H

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Prediction of Bladder Outcomes after Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury: A Longitudinal Cohort Study

by Chiara Pavese, Marc P. Schneider, Martin Schubert, Armin Curt, Giorgio Scivoletto, Enrico Finazzi-Agrò, Ulrich Mehnert, Doris Maier, Rainer Abel, Frank Röhrich, Norbert Weidner, Rüdiger Rupp, Alfons G. Kessels, Lucas M. Bachmann, Thomas M. Kessler Background Neurogenic bladder dysfunction represents one of the most common and devastating sequelae of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI).

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Exclusive Breastfeeding and Cognition, Executive Function, and Behavioural Disorders in Primary…

by Tamsen J. Rochat, Brian Houle, Alan Stein, Hoosen Coovadia, Anna Coutsoudis, Chris Desmond, Marie-Louise Newell, Ruth M. Bland Background Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is associated with early child health; its longer-term benefits for child development remain inconclusive. We examine the associations between EBF, HIV exposure, and other maternal/child factors and the cognitive and emotional-behavioural development of children aged 7–11 y. Methods and Findings The Vertical Transmission Study (VTS) supported EBF in HIV-positive and HIV-negative women; between 2012 and 2014, HIV-negative VTS children (332 HIV exposed, 574 HIV unexposed) were assessed in terms of cognition (Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children Second Edition [KABC-II]), executive function (Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment Second Edition [NEPSY-II]), and emotional-behavioural functioning (parent-reported Child Behaviour Checklist, [CBCL]).

Posted in General Global Health, Infant & Child Health, Journal Watch, Women & Children | Tagged | Comments closed

Why Most Clinical Research Is Not Useful

by John P. A. Ioannidis John Ioannidis argues that problem base, context placement, information gain, pragmatism, patient centeredness, value for money, feasibility, and transparency define useful clinical research. He suggests most clinical research is not useful and reform is overdue.

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Investigating the Causal Relationship of C-Reactive Protein with 32 Complex Somatic and…

by Bram. P. Prins, Ali Abbasi, Anson Wong, Ahmad Vaez, Ilja Nolte, Nora Franceschini, Philip E. Stuart, Javier Guterriez Achury, Vanisha Mistry, Jonathan P. Bradfield, Ana M

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Correction: All-Cause Mortality of Low Birthweight Infants in Infancy, Childhood, and…

by The PLOS Medicine Staff

Posted in Infant & Child Health, Journal Watch, Maternal & Reproductive Health, Women & Children | Tagged | Comments closed

Delinking Investment in Antibiotic Research and Development from Sales Revenues: The Challenges…

by Kevin Outterson, Unni Gopinathan, Charles Clift, Anthony D. So, Chantal M. Morel, John-Arne Røttingen Kevin Outterson and colleagues outline a model to address access, conservation, and innovation of antibiotics.

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Correction: Smoking Behavior and Healthcare Expenditure in the United States, 1992–2009:…

by The PLOS Medicine Staff

Posted in Journal Watch, Noncommunicable Disease, Tobacco, alcohol, & drugs | Tagged | Comments closed

Novel Three-Day, Community-Based, Nonpharmacological Group Intervention for Chronic…

by Stephanie J. C. Taylor, Dawn Carnes, Kate Homer, Brennan C. Kahan, Natalia Hounsome, Sandra Eldridge, Anne Spencer, Tamar Pincus, Anisur Rahman, Martin Underwood Background Chronic musculoskeletal pain is the leading cause of disability worldwide. The effectiveness of pharmacological treatments for chronic pain is often limited, and there is growing concern about the adverse effects of these treatments, including opioid dependence.

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Plant-Based Dietary Patterns and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in US Men and Women: Results from…

by Ambika Satija, Shilpa N. Bhupathiraju, Eric B. Rimm, Donna Spiegelman, Stephanie E. Chiuve, Lea Borgi, Walter C. Willett, JoAnn E.

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Phosphodiesterase Type 5 Inhibitors and Risk of Malignant Melanoma: Matched Cohort Study Using…

by Anthony Matthews, Sinéad M. Langan, Ian J. Douglas, Liam Smeeth, Krishnan Bhaskaran Background Laboratory evidence suggests that reduced phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) expression increases the invasiveness of melanoma cells; hence, pharmacological inhibition of PDE5 could affect melanoma risk. Two major epidemiological studies have investigated this and come to differing conclusions.

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Direct-to-consumer Marketing to People with Hemophilia

by Philip Kucab, Katelyn Dow Stepanyan, Adriane Fugh-Berman Adriane Fugh-Berman and colleagues describe how strategies similar to those used to market drugs to physicians are directed towards people with hemophilia.

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Correction: Using Qualitative Evidence in Decision Making for Health and Social Interventions:…

by The PLOS Medicine Staff

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Correction: Cardiovascular and Renal Outcomes of Renin-Angiotensin System Blockade in Adult…

by The PLOS Medicine Staff

Posted in Cardiovascular, Journal Watch, Noncommunicable Disease | Tagged , | Comments closed