Author Archives: PLoS Medicine

Housing Improvements and Malaria Risk in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Multi-Country Analysis of Survey…

by Lucy S. Tusting, Christian Bottomley, Harry Gibson, Immo Kleinschmidt, Andrew J. Tatem, Steve W. Lindsay, Peter W. Gething Background Improvements to housing may contribute to malaria control and elimination by reducing house entry by malaria vectors and thus exposure to biting.

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Delays and loss to follow-up before treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis following…

by Helen Cox, Lindy Dickson-Hall, Norbert Ndjeka, Anja van’t Hoog, Alison Grant, Frank Cobelens, Wendy Stevens, Mark Nicol Background South Africa has a large burden of rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (RR-TB), with 18,734 patients diagnosed in 2014. The number of diagnosed patients has increased substantially with the introduction of the Xpert MTB/RIF test, used for tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis for all patients with presumptive TB. Routine aggregate data suggest a large treatment gap (pre-treatment loss to follow-up) between the numbers of patients with laboratory-confirmed RR-TB and those reported to have started second-line treatment. We aimed to assess the impact of Xpert MTB/RIF implementation on the delay to treatment initiation and loss to follow-up before second-line treatment for RR-TB across South Africa. Methods and findings A nationwide retrospective cohort study was conducted to assess second-line treatment initiation and treatment delay among laboratory-diagnosed RR-TB patients

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Precision oncology: Charting a path forward to broader deployment of genomic profiling

by Alison M. Schram, Michael F. Berger, David M. Hyman In this Perspective, David Hyman and coauthors discuss clinical research on the application of genomic information in oncology.

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Evidence for scaling up HIV treatment in sub-Saharan Africa: A call for incorporating health…

by Evelinn Mikkelsen, Jan A. C. Hontelez, Maarten P. M. Jansen, Till Bärnighausen, Katharina Hauck, Kjell A.

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Clinical Action against Drunk Driving

by Donald A. Redelmeier, Allan S. Detsky In advance of a safety campaign on 17 March 2017, Donald Redelmeier and Allan Detsky call on physicians and clinical colleagues to reduce the chances that patients will drive drunk.

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Clinical applicability and cost of a 46-gene panel for genomic analysis of solid tumours:…

by Angela Hamblin, Sarah Wordsworth, Jilles M. Fermont, Suzanne Page, Kulvinder Kaur, Carme Camps, Pamela Kaisaki, Avinash Gupta, Denis Talbot, Mark Middleton, Shirley Henderson, Anthony Cutts, Dimitrios V. Vavoulis, Nick Housby, Ian Tomlinson, Jenny C. Taylor, Anna Schuh Background Single gene tests to predict whether cancers respond to specific targeted therapies are performed increasingly often.

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Taxes and Subsidies for Improving Diet and Population Health in Australia: A Cost-Effectiveness…

by Linda J. Cobiac, King Tam, Lennert Veerman, Tony Blakely Background An increasing number of countries are implementing taxes on unhealthy foods and drinks to address the growing burden of dietary-related disease, but the cost-effectiveness of combining taxes on unhealthy foods and subsidies on healthy foods is not well understood. Methods and Findings Using a population model of dietary-related diseases and health care costs and food price elasticities, we simulated the effect of taxes on saturated fat, salt, sugar, and sugar-sweetened beverages and a subsidy on fruits and vegetables, over the lifetime of the Australian population. The sizes of the taxes and subsidy were set such that, when combined as a package, there would be a negligible effect on average weekly expenditure on food (<1% change). We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of the interventions individually, then determined the optimal combination based on maximising net monetary benefit at a threshold of AU$50,000 per disability-adjusted life year (DALY)

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Refining Lung Cancer Screening Criteria in the Era of Value-Based Medicine

by Steven D. Shapiro In a Perspective on the Research Article by ten Haaf and colleagues, Steven Shapiro discusses the challenges of identifying screening strategies that maximize the number of cancers diagnosed, while minimizing the harms of overdiagnosis and maintaining cost-effectiveness.

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Haemolysis in G6PD Heterozygous Females Treated with Primaquine for <i>Plasmodium…

by Cindy S. Chu, Germana Bancone, Kerryn A. Moore, Htun Htun Win, Niramon Thitipanawan, Christina Po, Nongnud Chowwiwat, Rattanaporn Raksapraidee, Pornpimon Wilairisak, Aung Pyae Phyo, Lily Keereecharoen, Stéphane Proux, Prakaykaew Charunwatthana, François Nosten, Nicholas J. White Background Radical cure of Plasmodium vivax malaria with 8-aminoquinolines (primaquine or tafenoquine) is complicated by haemolysis in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency.

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Performance and Cost-Effectiveness of Computed Tomography Lung Cancer Screening Scenarios in a…

by Kevin ten Haaf, Martin C. Tammemägi, Susan J. Bondy, Carlijn M. van der Aalst, Sumei Gu, S. Elizabeth McGregor, Garth Nicholas, Harry J.

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Master Regulators of Oncogenic <i>KRAS</i> Response in Pancreatic Cancer: An…

by Shivan Sivakumar, Ines de Santiago, Leon Chlon, Florian Markowetz Background KRAS is the most frequently mutated gene in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), but the mechanisms underlying the transcriptional response to oncogenic KRAS are still not fully understood. We aimed to uncover transcription factors that regulate the transcriptional response of oncogenic KRAS in pancreatic cancer and to understand their clinical relevance. Methods and Findings We applied a well-established network biology approach (master regulator analysis) to combine a transcriptional signature for oncogenic KRAS derived from a murine isogenic cell line with a coexpression network derived by integrating 560 human pancreatic cancer cases across seven studies. The datasets included the ICGC cohort (n = 242), the TCGA cohort (n = 178), and five smaller studies (n = 17, 25, 26, 36, and 36). 55 transcription factors were coexpressed with a significant number of genes in the transcriptional signature (gene set enrichment analysis [GSEA] p < 0.01)

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Defining Abnormal Fetal Growth and Perinatal Risk: Population or Customized Standards?

by Sarah J. Stock, Jenny Myers In January’s Guest Editorial, Sarah Stock and Jenny Myers discuss approaches to fetal and neonatal growth assessment.

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Customised and Noncustomised Birth Weight Centiles and Prediction of Stillbirth and Infant…

by Stamatina Iliodromiti, Daniel F. Mackay, Gordon C. S. Smith, Jill P.

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Correction: Early Childhood Developmental Status in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: National,…

by Dana Charles McCoy, Evan D. Peet, Majid Ezzati, Goodarz Danaei, Maureen M. Black, Christopher R. Sudfeld, Wafaie Fawzi, Günther Fink

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