Author Archives: PLoS Medicine

Clinical Implications of Cancer Genomics: A Call for Papers

by The PLOS Medicine Editors In this month’s editorial, the PLOS Medicine Editors announce an upcoming Special Issue, with Guest Editors Elaine Mardis and Marc Ladanyi, on actionable advances in research on the cancer genome.

Posted in Cancer, Journal Watch, Noncommunicable Disease | Tagged | Comments closed

Disentangling the Association between Statins, Cholesterol, and Colorectal Cancer: A Nested…

by Ronac Mamtani, James D. Lewis, Frank I. Scott, Tariq Ahmad, David S. Goldberg, Jashodeep Datta, Yu-Xiao Yang, Ben Boursi Background Several prior studies have found an association between statin use and reduced risk of colorectal cancer.

Posted in Cancer, Cardiovascular, Journal Watch, Noncommunicable Disease | Tagged , | Comments closed

Gender Differences in Homicide of Neonates, Infants, and Children under 5 y in South Africa:…

by Naeemah Abrahams, Shanaaz Mathews, Lorna J. Martin, Carl Lombard, Nadine Nannan, Rachel Jewkes Background Homicide of children is a global problem. The under-5-y age group is the second largest homicide age group after 15–19 y olds, but has received little research attention. Understanding age and gender patterns is important for assisting with developing prevention interventions. Here we present an age and gender analysis of homicides among children under 5 y in South Africa from a national study that included a focus on neonaticide and infanticide.

Posted in Journal Watch | Tagged , , , | Comments closed

Child Homicide: A Global Public Health Concern

by Delan Devakumar, David Osrin In this perspective, Delan Devakumar and David Osrin discuss Abrahams and colleagues’ findings in the context of evidence about child homicide in different countries, and consider etiology along with implications for child protection and prevention.

Posted in Journal Watch | Comments closed

The ITA.LI.CA Staging System: A Novel Staging System for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

by Neehar D. Parikh, Amit G. Singal In this Perspective, Neehar Parikh and Amit Singal discuss the advantages of the ITA.LI.CA staging system for prognoses of liver cancer developed by Alessandro Vitale and colleagues.

Posted in Cancer, Journal Watch, Noncommunicable Disease | Tagged , | Comments closed

Development and Validation of a New Prognostic System for Patients with Hepatocellular…

by Fabio Farinati, Alessandro Vitale, Gaya Spolverato, Timothy M. Pawlik, Teh-la Huo, Yun-Hsuan Lee, Anna Chiara Frigo, Anna Giacomin, Edoardo G. Giannini, Francesca Ciccarese, Fabio Piscaglia, Gian Lodovico Rapaccini, Mariella Di Marco, Eugenio Caturelli, Marco Zoli, Franco Borzio, Giuseppe Cabibbo, Martina Felder, Rodolfo Sacco, Filomena Morisco, Elisabetta Biasini, Francesco Giuseppe Foschi, Antonio Gasbarrini, Gianluca Svegliati Baroni, Roberto Virdone, Alberto Masotto, Franco Trevisani, Umberto Cillo, ITA.LI.CA study group Background Prognostic assessment in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains controversial. Using the Italian Liver Cancer (ITA.LI.CA) database as a training set, we sought to develop and validate a new prognostic system for patients with HCC.

Posted in Cancer, Journal Watch, Noncommunicable Disease, Research | Tagged , | Comments closed

The Vast and Varied Global Burden of Norovirus: Prospects for Prevention and Control

by Benjamin A. Lopman, Duncan Steele, Carl D. Kirkwood, Umesh D. Parashar Globally, norovirus is associated with approximately one-fifth of all diarrhea cases, with similar prevalence in both children and adults, and is estimated to cause over 200,000 deaths annually in developing countries. Norovirus is an important pathogen in a number of high-priority domains: it is the most common cause of diarrheal episodes globally, the principal cause of foodborne disease outbreaks in the United States, a key health care–acquired infection, a common cause of travel-associated diarrhea, and a bane for deployed military troops.

Posted in Journal Watch | Comments closed

The Chernobyl Disaster and Beyond: Implications of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk…

by Amina Aitsi-Selmi, Virginia Murray On the 30th anniversary of the Chernobyl disaster, Amina Aitsi-Selmi and Virginia Murray reflect on the importance of disaster preparedness.

Posted in Environment, Journal Watch | Tagged | Comments closed

Is There Evidence of Poorer Birth Outcomes for Mothers and Babies When the Most Senior…

by Jenny E. Myers, Edward D. Johnstone In this Perspective on the study by Hannah Knight and colleagues, Jenny Myers and Edward Johnstone consider the implications of negative findings in a variable setting in which adverse events are rare.

Posted in Family planning, Infant & Child Health, Journal Watch, Maternal & Reproductive Health, MNCH, Women & Children | Tagged | Comments closed

Birth “Out-of-Hours”: An Evaluation of Obstetric Practice and Outcome According to the…

by Hannah E. Knight, Jan H. van der Meulen, Ipek Gurol-Urganci, Gordon C. Smith, Amit Kiran, Steve Thornton, David Richmond, Alan Cameron, David A. Cromwell Background Concerns have been raised that a lack of senior obstetricians (“consultants”) on the labour ward outside normal hours may lead to worse outcomes among babies born during periods of reduced cover

Posted in Family planning, Infant & Child Health, Journal Watch, Maternal & Reproductive Health, MNCH, Women & Children | Tagged | Comments closed

Experimental Treatment of Ebola Virus Disease with TKM-130803: A Single-Arm Phase 2 Clinical…

by Jake Dunning, Foday Sahr, Amanda Rojek, Fiona Gannon, Gail Carson, Baimba Idriss, Thomas Massaquoi, Regina Gandi, Sebatu Joseph, Hassan K. Osman, Timothy J. G. Brooks, Andrew J.

Posted in Ebola, Infectious Disease, Journal Watch, Research | Tagged , | Comments closed

Underweight, Markers of Cachexia, and Mortality in Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Prospective…

by Emily M. Bucholz, Hannah A Krumholz, Harlan M. Krumholz Background Underweight patients are at higher risk of death after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) than normal weight patients; however, it is unclear whether this relationship is explained by confounding due to cachexia or other factors associated with low body mass index (BMI). This study aimed to answer two questions: (1) does comprehensive risk adjustment for comorbid illness and frailty measures explain the higher mortality after AMI in underweight patients, and (2) is the relationship between underweight and mortality also observed in patients with AMI who are otherwise without significant chronic illness and are presumably free of cachexia? Methods and Findings We analyzed data from the Cooperative Cardiovascular Project, a cohort-based study of Medicare beneficiaries hospitalized for AMI between January 1994 and February 1996 with 17 y of follow-up and detailed clinical information to compare short- and long-term mortality in underweight and normal weight patients (n = 57,574).

Posted in Journal Watch, Malnutrition & Obesity, Monitoring & Evaluation, Noncommunicable Disease, Research | Tagged | Comments closed

Observational Evidence of For-Profit Delivery and Inferior Nursing Home Care: When Is There…

by Lisa A. Ronald, Margaret J. McGregor, Charlene Harrington, Allyson Pollock, Joel Lexchin Margaret McGregor and colleagues consider Bradford Hill’s framework for examining causation in observational research for the association between nursing home care quality and for-profit ownership.

Posted in Journal Watch | Comments closed

The Future of the RTS,S/AS01 Malaria Vaccine: An Alternative Development Plan

by Roly Gosling, Lorenz von Seidlein Roly Gosling and Lorenz von Seidlein consider a potential future development plan for the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine.

Posted in Infectious Disease, Journal Watch, Malaria | Tagged | Comments closed