Author Archives: PLoS Medicine

Individual Participant Data (IPD) Meta-analyses of Randomised Controlled Trials: Guidance on…

by Jayne F. Tierney, Claire Vale, Richard Riley, Catrin Tudur Smith, Lesley Stewart, Mike Clarke, Maroeska Rovers

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Glitazone Treatment and Incidence of Parkinson’s Disease among People with Diabetes: A…

by Ruth Brauer, Krishnan Bhaskaran, Nishi Chaturvedi, David T. Dexter, Liam Smeeth, Ian Douglas Background Recent in vitro and animal experiments suggest that peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor gamma (PPARɣ) agonist medications, such as antidiabetic glitazone (GTZ) drugs, are neuroprotective in models of Parkinson’s disease (PD). These findings have not been tested in humans. We hypothesized that individuals prescribed GTZ drugs would have a lower incidence of PD compared to individuals prescribed other treatments for diabetes. Methods and Findings Using primary care data from the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), we conducted a retrospective cohort study in which individuals with diabetes who were newly prescribed GTZ (GTZ-exposed group) were matched by age, sex, practice, and diabetes treatment stage with up to five individuals prescribed other diabetes treatments (other antidiabetic drug-exposed group)

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Connecting the Dots: Health Information Technology Expansion and Health Disparities

by Courtney Lyles, Dean Schillinger, Urmimala Sarkar

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HHEX_23 AA Genotype Exacerbates Effect of Diabetes on Dementia and Alzheimer Disease: A…

by Wei-Li Xu, Nancy L. Pedersen, Lina Keller, Grégoria Kalpouzos, Hui-Xin Wang, Caroline Graff, Bengt Winblad, Lars Bäckman, Laura Fratiglioni Background Research has suggested that variations within the IDE/HHEX gene region may underlie the association of type 2 diabetes with Alzheimer disease (AD). We sought to explore whether IDE genes play a role in the association of diabetes with dementia, AD, and structural brain changes using data from two community-based cohorts of older adults and a subsample with structural MRI. Methods and Findings The first cohort, which included dementia-free adults aged ≥75 y (n = 970) at baseline, was followed for 9 y to detect incident dementia (n = 358) and AD (n = 271) cases. The second cohort (for replication), which included 2,060 dementia-free participants aged ≥60 y at baseline, was followed for 6 y to identify incident dementia (n = 166) and AD (n = 121) cases.

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Risk of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes among Women Practicing Poor Sanitation in Rural India: A…

by Bijaya K. Padhi, Kelly K. Baker, Ambarish Dutta, Oliver Cumming, Matthew C. Freeman, Radhanatha Satpathy, Bhabani S. Das, Pinaki Panigrahi Background The importance of maternal sanitation behaviour during pregnancy for birth outcomes remains unclear.

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Searching for Public Health Law’s Sweet Spot: The Regulation of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages

by David M. Studdert, Jordan Flanders, Michelle M. Mello

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Mistreatment of Women in Childbirth: Time for Action on This Important Dimension of Violence…

by Rachel Jewkes, Loveday Penn-Kekana

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Inequitable and Ineffective: Exclusion of Mental Health from the Post-2015 Development Agenda

by Alexander C. Tsai, Mark Tomlinson

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The Mistreatment of Women during Childbirth in Health Facilities Globally: A Mixed-Methods…

by Meghan A. Bohren, Joshua P. Vogel, Erin C. Hunter, Olha Lutsiv, Suprita K.

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Correction: Efficacy of Pneumococcal Nontypable Haemophilus influenzae Protein D Conjugate…

by Miguel W. Tregnaghi, Xavier Sáez-Llorens, Pio López, Hector Abate, Enrique Smith, Adriana Pósleman, Arlene Calvo, Digna Wong, Carlos Cortes-Barbosa, Ana Ceballos, Marcelo Tregnaghi, Alexandra Sierra, Mirna Rodriguez, Marisol Troitiño, Carlos Carabajal, Andrea Falaschi, Ana Leandro, Maria Mercedes Castrejón, Alejandro Lepetic, Patricia Lommel, William P. Hausdorff, Dorota Borys, Javier Ruiz Guiñazú, Eduardo Ortega-Barría, Juan P. Yarzábal, Lode Schuerman, COMPAS Group

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Achieving Systemic and Scalable Private Sector Engagement in Tuberculosis Care and Prevention…

by William A. Wells, Mukund Uplekar, Madhukar Pai

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Transmission of Multidrug-Resistant and Drug-Susceptible Tuberculosis within Households: A…

by Louis Grandjean, Robert H. Gilman, Laura Martin, Esther Soto, Beatriz Castro, Sonia Lopez, Jorge Coronel, Edith Castillo, Valentina Alarcon, Virginia Lopez, Angela San Miguel, Neyda Quispe, Luis Asencios, Christopher Dye, David A. J. Moore Background The “fitness” of an infectious pathogen is defined as the ability of the pathogen to survive, reproduce, be transmitted, and cause disease.

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Maximizing the Impact of Training Initiatives for Health Professionals in Low-Income Countries:…

by Corrado Cancedda, Paul E. Farmer, Vanessa Kerry, Tej Nuthulaganti, Kirstin W. Scott, Eric Goosby, Agnes Binagwaho

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HIV Programs for Sex Workers: Lessons and Challenges for Developing and Delivering Programs

by David Wilson There is evidence that HIV prevention programs for sex workers, especially female sex workers, are cost-effective in several contexts, including many western countries, Thailand, India, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya, and Zimbabwe. The evidence that sex worker HIV prevention programs work must not inspire complacency but rather a renewed effort to expand, intensify, and maximize their impact. The PLOS Collection “Focus on Delivery and Scale: Achieving HIV Impact with Sex Workers” highlights major challenges to scaling-up sex worker HIV prevention programs, noting the following: sex worker HIV prevention programs are insufficiently guided by understanding of epidemic transmission dynamics, situation analyses, and programmatic mapping; sex worker HIV and sexually transmitted infection services receive limited domestic financing in many countries; many sex worker HIV prevention programs are inadequately codified to ensure consistency and quality; and many sex worker HIV prevention programs have not evolved adequately to address informal sex workers, male and transgender sex workers, and mobile- and internet-based sex workers. Based on the wider collection of papers, this article presents three major clusters of recommendations: (i) HIV programs focused on sex workers should be prioritized, developed, and implemented based on robust evidence; (ii) national political will and increased funding are needed to increase coverage of effective sex worker HIV prevention programs in low and middle income countries; and (iii) comprehensive, integrated, and rapidly evolving HIV programs are needed to ensure equitable access to health services for individuals involved in all forms of sex work.

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