Author Archives: PLoS Medicine

"The Policy Dystopia Model": Implications for Health Advocates and Democratic…

by Elizabeth A. Smith, Patricia A. McDaniel In this Perspective on the research article by Ulucanlar and colleagues, Elizabeth Smith and Patricia McDaniel discuss how industry opposition to regulation can undermine the public’s overall confidence in government and science.

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Reporting of Adverse Events in Published and Unpublished Studies of Health Care Interventions:…

by Su Golder, Yoon K. Loke, Kath Wright, Gill Norman Background We performed a systematic review to assess whether we can quantify the underreporting of adverse events (AEs) in the published medical literature documenting the results of clinical trials as compared with other nonpublished sources, and whether we can measure the impact this underreporting has on systematic reviews of adverse events. Methods and Findings Studies were identified from 15 databases (including MEDLINE and Embase) and by handsearching, reference checking, internet searches, and contacting experts. The last database searches were conducted in July 2016.

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Chronic Kidney Disease in Primary Care: Outcomes after Five Years in a Prospective Cohort Study

by Adam Shardlow, Natasha J. McIntyre, Richard J. Fluck, Christopher W. McIntyre, Maarten W. Taal Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is commonly managed in primary care, but most guidelines have a secondary care perspective emphasizing the risk of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) and need for renal replacement therapy.

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Interplay between Diagnostic Criteria and Prognostic Accuracy in Chronic Kidney Disease

by Giuseppe Remuzzi, Richard Glassock In a Perspective, Giuseppe Remuzzi and Richard Glassock discuss diagnostic criteria for chronic kidney disease and implications for disease progression.

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The Policy Dystopia Model: An Interpretive Analysis of Tobacco Industry Political Activity

by Selda Ulucanlar, Gary J. Fooks, Anna B. Gilmore Background Tobacco industry interference has been identified as the greatest obstacle to the implementation of evidence-based measures to reduce tobacco use. Understanding and addressing industry interference in public health policy-making is therefore crucial. Existing conceptualisations of corporate political activity (CPA) are embedded in a business perspective and do not attend to CPA’s social and public health costs; most have not drawn on the unique resource represented by internal tobacco industry documents

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The Incidence Patterns Model to Estimate the Distribution of New HIV Infections in Sub-Saharan…

by Annick Bórquez, Anne Cori, Erica L. Pufall, Jingo Kasule, Emma Slaymaker, Alison Price, Jocelyn Elmes, Basia Zaba, Amelia C. Crampin, Joseph Kagaayi, Tom Lutalo, Mark Urassa, Simon Gregson, Timothy B. Hallett Background Programmatic planning in HIV requires estimates of the distribution of new HIV infections according to identifiable characteristics of individuals. In sub-Saharan Africa, robust routine data sources and historical epidemiological observations are available to inform and validate such estimates.

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Scheduled Intermittent Screening with Rapid Diagnostic Tests and Treatment with…

by Mwayiwawo Madanitsa, Linda Kalilani, Victor Mwapasa, Anna M. van Eijk, Carole Khairallah, Doreen Ali, Cheryl Pace, James Smedley, Kyaw-Lay Thwai, Brandt Levitt, Duolao Wang, Arthur Kang’ombe, Brian Faragher, Steve M. Taylor, Steve Meshnick, Feiko O. ter Kuile Background In Africa, most plasmodium infections during pregnancy remain asymptomatic, yet are associated with maternal anemia and low birthweight. WHO recommends intermittent preventive therapy in pregnancy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP)

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International Criteria for Acute Kidney Injury: Advantages and Remaining Challenges

by Nicholas M. Selby, Richard J. Fluck, Nitin V. Kolhe, Maarten W. Taal Nicholas Selby and colleagues describe how the definition of acute kidney injury brings opportunities and challenges in identifying patients at higher risk of adverse outcomes.

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Potential for Controlling Cholera Using a Ring Vaccination Strategy: Re-analysis of Data from a…

by Mohammad Ali, Amanda K. Debes, Francisco J. Luquero, Deok Ryun Kim, Je Yeon Park, Laura Digilio, Byomkesh Manna, Suman Kanungo, Shanta Dutta, Dipika Sur, Sujit K. Bhattacharya, David A. Sack Introduction Vaccinating a buffer of individuals around a case (ring vaccination) has the potential to target those who are at highest risk of infection, reducing the number of doses needed to control a disease.

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Antimicrobial Resistance: Is the World UNprepared?

by The PLOS Medicine Editors Long Blurb: On September 21st 2016 the United Nations General Assembly convenes in New York, United States to tackle a looming and seemingly inevitable global challenge with the potential to threaten the health and wellbeing of all people: antimicrobial resistance. In an Editorial, the PLOS Medicine Editors reflect on the challenge of coordinating the response to antimicrobial resistance in order to ensure the viability of current antimicrobials and the development of new therapies against resistant pathogens. Short Blurb: In this month’s Editorial, the PLOS Medicine Editors reflect on the upcoming United Nations General Assembly meeting which convenes to discuss the global challenge of antimicrobial resistance.

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Associations between Extending Access to Primary Care and Emergency Department Visits: A…

by William Whittaker, Laura Anselmi, Søren Rud Kristensen, Yiu-Shing Lau, Simon Bailey, Peter Bower, Katherine Checkland, Rebecca Elvey, Katy Rothwell, Jonathan Stokes, Damian Hodgson Background Health services across the world increasingly face pressures on the use of expensive hospital services. Better organisation and delivery of primary care has the potential to manage demand and reduce costs for hospital services, but routine primary care services are not open during evenings and weekends.Extended access (evening and weekend opening) is hypothesized to reduce pressure on hospital services from emergency department visits. However, the existing evidence-base is weak, largely focused on emergency out-of-hours services, and analysed using a before-and after-methodology without effective comparators. Methods and Findings Throughout 2014, 56 primary care practices (346,024 patients) in Greater Manchester, England, offered 7-day extended access, compared with 469 primary care practices (2,596,330 patients) providing routine access. Extended access included evening and weekend opening and served both urgent and routine appointments

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Association between Adult Height and Risk of Colorectal, Lung, and Prostate Cancer: Results…

by Nikhil K. Khankari, Xiao-Ou Shu, Wanqing Wen, Peter Kraft, Sara Lindström, Ulrike Peters, Joellen Schildkraut, Fredrick Schumacher, Paolo Bofetta, Angela Risch, Heike Bickeböller, Christopher I. Amos, Douglas Easton, Rosalind A. Eeles, Stephen B.

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Sex Differences in Tuberculosis Burden and Notifications in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A…

by Katherine C. Horton, Peter MacPherson, Rein M. G. J.

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A Médecins Sans Frontières Ethics Framework for Humanitarian Innovation

by Julian Sheather, Kiran Jobanputra, Doris Schopper, John Pringle, Sarah Venis, Sidney Wong, Robin Vincent-Smith Kiran Jobanputra and colleagues describe an ethics framework to support the ethics oversight of innovation projects in medical humanitarian contexts.

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