Author Archives: PLoS Medicine

Progression of the first stage of spontaneous labour: A prospective cohort study in two…

by Olufemi T. Oladapo, Joao Paulo Souza, Bukola Fawole, Kidza Mugerwa, Gleici Perdoná, Domingos Alves, Hayala Souza, Rodrigo Reis, Livia Oliveira-Ciabati, Alexandre Maiorano, Adesina Akintan, Francis E. Alu, Lawal Oyeneyin, Amos Adebayo, Josaphat Byamugisha, Miriam Nakalembe, Hadiza A. Idris, Ola Okike, Fernando Althabe, Vanora Hundley, France Donnay, Robert Pattinson, Harshadkumar C. Sanghvi, Jen E

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Estimated mortality on HIV treatment among active patients and patients lost to follow-up in 4…

by Charles B. Holmes, Izukanji Sikazwe, Kombatende Sikombe, Ingrid Eshun-Wilson, Nancy Czaicki, Laura K. Beres, Njekwa Mukamba, Sandra Simbeza, Carolyn Bolton Moore, Cardinal Hantuba, Peter Mwaba, Caroline Phiri, Nancy Padian, David V. Glidden, Elvin Geng Background Survival represents the single most important indicator of successful HIV treatment. Routine monitoring fails to capture most deaths

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The WHO 2016 verbal autopsy instrument: An international standard suitable for automated…

by Erin K. Nichols, Peter Byass, Daniel Chandramohan, Samuel J. Clark, Abraham D. Flaxman, Robert Jakob, Jordana Leitao, Nicolas Maire, Chalapati Rao, Ian Riley, Philip W.

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Sexually transmitted infections in the era of antiretroviral-based HIV prevention: Priorities…

by Jeanne M. Marrazzo, Julia C. Dombrowski, Kenneth H. Mayer Jeanne M.

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From macro- to microfactors in health: Social science approaches in research on sexually…

by Ruth Kutalek, Elena Jirovsky, Igor Grabovac Ruth Kutalek and colleagues share their Perspective on Kipruto Chesang and colleagues’ qualitative study of beliefs and practices among healthcare providers managing STIs in Kenya and discuss the value of this type of research for addressing biosocial challenges.

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Immune-related genetic enrichment in frontotemporal dementia: An analysis of genome-wide…

by Iris Broce, Celeste M. Karch, Natalie Wen, Chun C. Fan, Yunpeng Wang, Chin Hong Tan, Naomi Kouri, Owen A. Ross, Günter U. Höglinger, Ulrich Muller, John Hardy, International FTD-Genomics Consortium , Parastoo Momeni, Christopher P.

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Association between intake of less-healthy foods defined by the United Kingdom’s nutrient…

by Oliver T. Mytton, Nita G. Forouhi, Peter Scarborough, Marleen Lentjes, Robert Luben, Mike Rayner, Kay Tee Khaw, Nicholas J. Wareham, Pablo Monsivais Background In the United Kingdom, the Food Standards Agency-Ofcom nutrient profiling model (FSA-Ofcom model) is used to define less-healthy foods that cannot be advertised to children. However, there has been limited investigation of whether less-healthy foods defined by this model are associated with prospective health outcomes

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What about drinking is associated with shorter life in poorer people?

by Jürgen Rehm, Charlotte Probst In a Perspective, Jürgen Rehm and Charlotte Probst examine the links between socioeconomic status, alcohol use, and cardiovascular mortality and discuss implications for policy.

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Pelvic inflammatory disease risk following negative results from chlamydia nucleic acid…

by Bethan Davies, Katy M. E. Turner, Thomas Benfield, Maria Frølund, Berit Andersen, Henrik Westh, on behalf of the Danish Chlamydia Study , Helen Ward Background Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests (NAATs) are the recommended test type for diagnosing Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia). However, less sensitive diagnostic methods—including direct immunofluorescence (IF) and enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA)—remain in use in lower resourced settings. We estimate the risk of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) following undiagnosed infection in women tested with non-NAATs and estimate the health gain from using accurate diagnostic tests

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Life course socioeconomic position, alcohol drinking patterns in midlife, and cardiovascular…

by Eirik Degerud, Inger Ariansen, Eivind Ystrom, Sidsel Graff-Iversen, Gudrun Høiseth, Jørg Mørland, George Davey Smith, Øyvind Næss Background Socioeconomically disadvantaged groups tend to experience more harm from the same level of exposure to alcohol as advantaged groups. Alcohol has multiple biological effects on the cardiovascular system, both potentially harmful and protective. We investigated whether the diverging relationships between alcohol drinking patterns and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality differed by life course socioeconomic position (SEP). Methods and findings From 3 cohorts (the Counties Studies, the Cohort of Norway, and the Age 40 Program, 1987–2003) containing data from population-based cardiovascular health surveys in Norway, we included participants with self-reported information on alcohol consumption frequency (n = 207,394) and binge drinking episodes (≥5 units per occasion, n = 32,616). We also used data from national registries obtained by linkage.

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Dual-strain genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection in the US, Peru, and 8…

by Christine Johnston, Amalia Magaret, Pavitra Roychoudhury, Alexander L. Greninger, Daniel Reeves, Joshua Schiffer, Keith R. Jerome, Cassandra Sather, Kurt Diem, Jairam R. Lingappa, Connie Celum, David M.

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The vaginal microbiome and sexually transmitted infections are interlinked: Consequences for…

by Janneke H. H. M. van de Wijgert In a Perspective for our Collection on STI research, Janneke van de Wijgert discusses the latest on how the vaginal microbiota predisposes women to acquisition of STIs and discusses future potential for clinical intervention.

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Healthcare provider perspectives on managing sexually transmitted infections in HIV care…

by Kipruto Chesang, Sureyya Hornston, Odylia Muhenje, Teresa Saliku, Joy Mirjahangir, Amanda Viitanen, Helgar Musyoki, Christine Awuor, George Githuka, Naomi Bock Background The burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) has been increasing in Kenya, as is the case elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa, while measures for control and prevention are weak. The objectives of this study were to (1) describe healthcare provider (HCP) knowledge and practices, (2) explore HCP attitudes and beliefs, (3) identify structural and environmental factors affecting STI management, and (4) seek recommendations to improve the STI program in Kenya. Methods and findings Using individual in-depth interviews (IDIs), data were obtained from 87 HCPs working in 21 high-volume comprehensive HIV care centers (CCCs) in 7 of Kenya’s 8 regions. Transcript coding was performed through an inductive and iterative process, and the data were analyzed using NVivo 10.0.

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Internet-accessed sexually transmitted infection (e-STI) testing and results service: A…

by Emma Wilson, Caroline Free, Tim P. Morris, Jonathan Syred, Irrfan Ahamed, Anatole S. Menon-Johansson, Melissa J. Palmer, Sharmani Barnard, Emma Rezel, Paula Baraitser Background Internet-accessed sexually transmitted infection testing (e-STI testing) is increasingly available as an alternative to testing in clinics.

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