by Gesine Meyer-Rath, Jan Pienaar, Brian Brink, Andrew van Zyl, Debbie Muirhead, Alison Grant, Gavin Churchyard, Charlotte Watts, Peter Vickerman Background HIV impacts heavily on the operating costs of companies in sub-Saharan Africa, with many companies now providing antiretroviral therapy (ART) programmes in the workplace. A full cost–benefit analysis of workplace ART provision has not been conducted using primary data. We developed a dynamic health-state transition model to estimate the economic impact of HIV and the cost–benefit of ART provision in a mining company in South Africa between 2003 and 2022. Methods and Findings A dynamic health-state transition model, called the Workplace Impact Model (WIM), was parameterised with workplace data on workforce size, composition, turnover, HIV incidence, and CD4 cell count development. Bottom-up cost analyses from the employer perspective supplied data on inpatient and outpatient resource utilisation and the costs of absenteeism and replacement of sick workers
Author Archives: PLoS Medicine
by Pamela Maris, Arnaud Blomme, Ana Perez Palacios, Brunella Costanza, Akeila Bellahcène, Elettra Bianchi, Stephanie Gofflot, Pierre Drion, Giovanna Elvi Trombino, Emmanuel Di Valentin, Pino G. Cusumano, Sylvie Maweja, Guy Jerusalem, Philippe Delvenne, Eric Lifrange, Vincent Castronovo, Andrei Turtoi Background Breast cancer is a leading malignancy affecting the female population worldwide. Most morbidity is caused by metastases that remain incurable to date. TGF-β1 has been identified as a key driving force behind metastatic breast cancer, with promising therapeutic implications. Methods and Findings Employing immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis, we report, to our knowledge for the first time, that asporin is overexpressed in the stroma of most human breast cancers and is not expressed in normal breast tissue
by James Heilman
by Andrew S. Azman, Francisco J. Luquero, Iza Ciglenecki, Rebecca F. Grais, David A. Sack, Justin Lessler Background In 2013, a stockpile of oral cholera vaccine (OCV) was created for use in outbreak response, but vaccine availability remains severely limited
by The PLOS Medicine Editors
by Lauren E. Mokry, Stephanie Ross, Omar S. Ahmad, Vincenzo Forgetta, George Davey Smith, Aaron Leong, Celia M. T. Greenwood, George Thanassoulis, J
by Ge Zhang, Jonas Bacelis, Candice Lengyel, Kari Teramo, Mikko Hallman, Øyvind Helgeland, Stefan Johansson, Ronny Myhre, Verena Sengpiel, Pål Rasmus Njølstad, Bo Jacobsson, Louis Muglia Background Observational epidemiological studies indicate that maternal height is associated with gestational age at birth and fetal growth measures (i.e., shorter mothers deliver infants at earlier gestational ages with lower birth weight and birth length). Different mechanisms have been postulated to explain these associations. This study aimed to investigate the casual relationships behind the strong association of maternal height with fetal growth measures (i.e., birth length and birth weight) and gestational age by a Mendelian randomization approach. Methods and Findings We conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis using phenotype and genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data of 3,485 mother/infant pairs from birth cohorts collected from three Nordic countries (Finland, Denmark, and Norway). We constructed a genetic score based on 697 SNPs known to be associated with adult height to index maternal height.
by Katerina A. Christopoulos, Susan Olender, Andrea M. Lopez, Helen-Maria Lekas, Jessica Jaiswal, Will Mellman, Elvin Geng, Kimberly A. Koester Background Patients retained in HIV care but not on antiretroviral therapy (ART) represent an important part of the HIV care cascade in the United States.
by Mark D. Huffman
by Joanna Moncrieff
by Dongfeng Gu, Jiang He, Pamela G. Coxson, Petra W. Rasmussen, Chen Huang, Anusorn Thanataveerat, Keane Y. Tzong, Juyang Xiong, Miao Wang, Dong Zhao, Lee Goldman, Andrew E.
by David S. Stephens, Bruce S. Ribner, Bryce D. Gartland, Nancye R. Feistritzer, Monica M.
by Peter J. Hotez, Larry Peiperl
by Tony Blakely, Linda J. Cobiac, Christine L. Cleghorn, Amber L. Pearson, Frederieke S.