See the complete list of contents for the latest WHO Bulletin. Here are some highlights: Persuading people to make healthy choices How WHO defines unsafe…
Paul Farmer’s recently called for more foreign aid to be delivered through local public systems. Nora Lester Murad disagrees, and sees an underlying ideology that overlooks the causes of inequity and vulnerability. She offers an alternative.
On the UNdispatch blog, Mark Goldberg discusses the unfolding human rights and a public health disaster in Uganda and what the international community should or…
by Maroya Spalding Walters, Janell Routh, Matthew Mikoleit, Samuel Kadivane, Caroline Ouma, Denis Mubiru, Ben Mbusa, Amos Murangi, Emmanuel Ejoku, Absalom Rwantangle, Uziah Kule, John Lule, Nancy Garrett, Jessica Halpin, Nikki Maxwell, Atek Kagirita, Fred Mulabya, Issa Makumbi, Molly Freeman, Kevin Joyce, Vince Hill, Robert Downing, Eric Mintz Background Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi is transmitted by fecally contaminated food and water and causes approximately 22 million typhoid fever infections worldwide each year. Most cases occur in developing countries, where approximately 4% of patients develop intestinal perforation (IP). In Kasese District, Uganda, a typhoid fever outbreak notable for a high IP rate began in 2008. We report that this outbreak continued through 2011, when it spread to the neighboring district of Bundibugyo. Methodology/Principal Findings A suspected typhoid fever case was defined as IP or symptoms of fever, abdominal pain, and ≥1 of the following: gastrointestinal disruptions, body weakness, joint pain, headache, clinically suspected IP, or non-responsiveness to antimalarial medications
by Camille Escadafal, Oumar Faye, Amadou Alpha Sall, Ousmane Faye, Manfred Weidmann, Oliver Strohmeier, Felix von Stetten, Josef Drexler, Michael Eberhard, Matthias Niedrig, Pranav Patel Background Yellow fever (YF) is an acute viral hemorrhagic disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. The causative agent, the yellow fever virus (YFV), is found in tropical and subtropical areas of South America and Africa. Although a vaccine is available since the 1930s, YF still causes thousands of deaths and several outbreaks have recently occurred in Africa. Therefore, rapid and reliable diagnostic methods easy to perform in low-resources settings could have a major impact on early detection of outbreaks and implementation of appropriate response strategies such as vaccination and/or vector control. Methodology The aim of this study was to develop a YFV nucleic acid detection method applicable in outbreak investigations and surveillance studies in low-resource and field settings
by Giorgi Babuadze, Jorge Alvar, Daniel Argaw, Harry P. de Koning, Merab Iosava, Merab Kekelidze, Nikoloz Tsertsvadze, David Tsereteli, Giorgi Chakhunashvili, Tamar Mamatsashvili, Nino Beria, Irine Kalandadze, Mikhail Ejov, Paata Imnadze This study investigated the transmission and prevalence of Leishmania parasite infection of humans in two foci of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) in Georgia, the well known focus in Tbilisi in the East, and in Kutaisi, a new focus in the West of the country. The seroprevalence of canine leishmaniasis was investigated in order to understand the zoonotic transmission. Blood samples of 1575 dogs (stray and pet) and 77 wild canids were tested for VL by Kalazar Detect rK39 rapid diagnostic tests. Three districts were investigated in Tbilisi and one in Kutaisi
Jakarta Post: Global Fund to offer more flexible funding model “International funding institution the Global Fund has developed a new funding model to maximize the global fight against AIDS, tuberculosis (TB) and malaria. … The Indonesian health minister hoped that the new funding model could help accelerate the achievement of AIDS, TB and malaria control…More
Integrated community case management (iCCM) of common illnesses, as we learned at the just completed evidence review symposium on iCCM in Accra, Ghana, requires a number of key inputs ranging from adequate procurement and supply of commodities, well stated supportive policies and human resources from the district to the clinic to the community. One input, the collaboration among stakeholders needs constant reinforcement. Although the project was not iCCM, an implementation research study in 8 sites in Africa that added a package of interventions to existing ivermectin distribution illustrates the need for stakeholder concurrence and collaboration. This 3-year community directed intervention (CDI) Tropical Disease Research Program effort (UNDP/World Bank/Unicef/WHO) was designed to add a package of interventions to the community’s ‘portfolio’ each year in a step-wise manner. These included antimalarials for community case management, insecticide treated nets, vitamin A and drugs for directly observed treatment of tuberculosis
Jeffrey Drazen (audio) discusses findings from a recent study published in the NEJM on “Causes of Fever in Outpatient Tanzanian Children”. NEJM — Beyond Malaria…
Background: Programmes of pre-elimination of malaria have been implemented in Senegal since 2010, and the burden of malaria has decreased substantially.
The President’s nominee for US Global AIDS Coordinator (read: the head of PEPFAR) – Dr. Deborah Birx – will appear before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee on Thursday for what is hoped to be a speedy confirmation hearing. PEPFAR should be fresh on the minds of committee members who passed legislation late last year to extend authorization for the US global AIDS program.
Abstract. A 4-year-old Cambodian male presented to the emergency room with 2 weeks of gradually increasing leg weakness until he could no longer stand. He was also reported to have a deformity on his back, intermittent fevers and cough. His physical exam was notable for a 2 cm x 1 cm bony protrusion at his T4 vertebrae, and 2/5 strength and positive Babinski reflexes in his lower extremities.