Infectious Disease

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Cynthia GoldsmithThis colorized transmission electron micrograph (TEM) revealed some of the ultrastructural morphology displayed by an Ebola virus virion. See PHIL 1832 for a black and white version of this image.Where is Ebola virus found in nature?The exact origin, locations, and natural habitat (known as the "natural reservoir") of Ebola virus remain unknown. However, on the basis of available evidence and the nature of similar viruses, researchers believe that the virus is zoonotic (animal-borne) and is normally maintained in an animal host that is native to the African continent. A similar host is probably associated with Ebola-Reston which was isolated from infected cynomolgous monkeys that were imported to the United States and Italy from the Philippines. The virus is not known to be native to other continents, such as North America.

A virologist in the hot zone

Science/AAAS | Q & A with Virologist Heinz Feldmann, who co-developed one of the Ebola vaccine candidates and recently visited Monrovia, Liberia, to work in Read More

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Seven secrets of the female condom

This post’s author, Kim Whipkey, is the advocacy and communications specialist on the female condom project at PATH. Female condoms may be one of the best kept secrets in reproductive health. Even though the first female condom product was introduced … Continue reading » ; ; ; ;Related StoriesPharmacies on the frontline of sexual and reproductive health10 cool projects from PATH—and youDance with us on Global Female Condom Day, September 16 ;

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Sierra Leone: Ebola hospital staff walk out due to lack of pay

September 16, 2014 Health workers walked out of an Ebola ward in a district hospital

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Therapeutic efficacy and safety of artemether-lumefantrine for the treatment of uncomplicated…

Background: The World Health Organization recommends that regular efficacy monitoring should be undertaken by all malaria endemic countries that have deployed artemisinin combination therapy (ACT).


Label-free microfluidic enrichment of ring-stage Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells…

Background: Understanding of malaria pathogenesis caused by Plasmodium falciparum has been greatly deepened since the introduction of in vitro culture system, but the lack of a method to enrich ring-stage parasites remains a technical challenge.


Correction: Fleas of Small Mammals on Reunion Island: Diversity, Distribution and…

by The PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases Staff


Syria vaccine campaign suspended after fifteen deaths

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September 18, 2014 A vaccine campaign in the rebel-held parts of northwestern Syria left 15


Stable malaria incidence despite scaling up control strategies in a malaria vaccine-testing…

Background: The recent decline in malaria incidence in many African countries has been attributed to the provision of prompt and effective anti-malarial treatment using artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) and to the widespread distribution of long-lasting, insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs).


Detection of Plasmodium knowlesi DNA in the urine and faeces of a Japanese macaque (Macaca…

Background: Diagnostic techniques based on PCR for the detection of Plasmodium DNA can be highly sensitive and specific.


Sporotrichosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Sporothrix brasiliensis Is Associated with Atypical…

by Rodrigo Almeida-Paes, Manoel Marques Evangelista de Oliveira, Dayvison Francis Saraiva Freitas, Antônio Carlos Francesconi do Valle, Rosely Maria Zancopé-Oliveira, Maria Clara Gutierrez-Galhardo Background There have been several recent changes in the taxonomy of Sporothrix schenckii as well as new observations regarding the clinical aspects of sporotrichosis. In this study, we determined the identification of the Sporothrix species associated with both classic and unusual clinical aspects of sporotrichosis observed in the endemic area of sporotrichosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methodology/Principal Findings To verify whether S.


All That Glisters Is Not Gold: Sampling-Process Uncertainty in Disease-Vector Surveys with…

by Fernando Abad-Franch, Carolina Valença-Barbosa, Otília Sarquis, Marli M. Lima Background Vector-borne diseases are major public health concerns worldwide. For many of them, vector control is still key to primary prevention, with control actions planned and evaluated using vector occurrence records


Status of Onchocerciasis Transmission after More Than a Decade of Mass Drug Administration for…

by Darin S. Evans, Kal Alphonsus, Jon Umaru, Abel Eigege, Emmanuel Miri, Hayward Mafuyai, Carlos Gonzales-Peralta, William Adamani, Elias Pede, Christopher Umbugadu, Yisa Saka, Bridget Okoeguale, Frank O. Richards Background This study was undertaken in five onchocerciasis/lymphatic filariasis (LF) co-endemic local government areas (LGAs) in Plateau and Nasarawa, Nigeria


Mortality Rates above Emergency Threshold in Population Affected by Conflict in North Kivu,…

by Antonio Isidro Carrión Martín, Karla Bil, Papy Salumu, Dominique Baabo, Jatinder Singh, Corry Kik, Annick Lenglet The area of Walikale in North Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo, is intensely affected by conflict and population displacement. Médecins-Sans-Frontières (MSF) returned to provide primary healthcare in July 2012.


Visceral Leishmaniasis and HIV Coinfection in Latin America

by José Angelo Lindoso, Gláucia Fernandes Cota, Alda Maria da Cruz, Hiro Goto, Ana Nilce Silveira Maia-Elkhoury, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra Romero, Márcia Leite de Sousa-Gomes, Joanna Reis Santos-Oliveira, Ana Rabello Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an endemic zoonotic disease in Latin America caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, which is transmitted by sand flies from the genus Lutzomyia. VL occurs in 12 countries of Latin America, with 96% of cases reported in Brazil. Recently, an increase in VL, primarily affecting children and young adults, has been observed in urban areas of Latin America


Geographic Separation of Domestic and Wild Strains of Toxoplasma gondii in French Guiana…

by Asis Khan, Daniel Ajzenberg, Aurélien Mercier, Magalie Demar, Stéphane Simon, Marie Laure Dardé, Qiuling Wang, Shiv Kumar Verma, Benjamin M. Rosenthal, Jitender P.


NLRC4 and TLR5 Each Contribute to Host Defense in Respiratory Melioidosis

by T. Eoin West, Nicolle D. Myers, Narisara Chantratita, Wirongrong Chierakul, Direk Limmathurotsakul, Vanaporn Wuthiekanun, Edward A.


Repurposed Automated Handheld Counter as a Point-of-Care Tool to Identify Individuals ‘At…

by Sasisekhar Bennuru, Sébastien D. S.


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