Diahrreal Disease

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Controversy over transparency: why non-profits need to disclose their “real” overhead ratio

“The fact is an average of 91 cents of every dollar the Red Cross spends is invested in our humanitarian services and programs.”[1] This is Read More

Reflections on a year of malnutrition

Malnutrition is frustrating. I often sit in the office, analyzing data from our programs, and feel helpless. Children who stay the same height for two Read More

Links between child and adult chronic diseases: Lessons from Guatemala

Since 2013, I have had the great joy of working in rural Guatemala for the non-governmental organization Wuqu’ Kawoq | Maya Health Alliance—first during medical Read More

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DefeatDD India videos: Behind-the-scenes commentary

DefeatDD India videos: Behind-the-scenes commentary hrandall Thu, 07/06/2017 – 11:41 Jul 09, 2017 defeatDD Earlier this year, the DefeatDD team journeyed to India to gather stories about the burden of diarrheal disease and the continued need for integrated approaches to prevent the vicious cycle of malnutrition, poverty, and poor health.   While the burden of diarrheal disease in India is among the highest in the world, the national momentum for child health and the programs that are already saving lives filled us with optimism and are a beautiful demonstration of what is possible with the right investments. We hope this video series conveys the inspiration we brought back with us.     Video 1: “Health is our right”: India’s momentum against diarrhea     Hope: We hit the jackpot with partner interviews, but I was personally awestruck by Neerja Chowdhury, a political commentator and journalist who has been a passionate advocate against child malnutrition for 30+ years. I was grateful for the opportunity to feature so many Indian voices in these videos, especially Indian women


Telling the world’s most vulnerable children, “We’re in your corner.”

Telling the world’s most vulnerable children, “We’re in your corner.” hrandall Thu, 06/29/2017 – 12:16 Jun 29, 2017 Six years ago, I traveled through rural Western Kenya to gather stories about Alfred Ochola’s one-man mission to restore oral rehydration therapy (ORT) corners in local hospitals. Though I was there to listen and observe, Alfred handed me a hot plate before we entered each clinic and gave me the honor of presenting it to grateful staff (the hot plates facilitated the nurses’ ability to make a healthy meal for recovering ORT therapy patients before discharging them). He reasoned that since the hot plates came from USAID, it would be meaningful if I, a US citizen whose tax dollars had contributed to these supplies, would deliver them. As an individual, I felt humbled.


How cost-effectiveness analysis helped strengthen Bangladesh’s resolve to combat rotavirus

How cost-effectiveness analysis helped strengthen Bangladesh’s resolve to combat rotavirus hrandall Wed, 06/14/2017 – 15:56 Jun 14, 2017 Umesh Parashar Head of the Viral Gastroenteritis team in the Division of Viral Diseases, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) In the lead-up to Bangladesh’s introduction of rotavirus vaccines, a recently published cost-effectiveness analysis helps bolster the evidence base for decision-makers.   Bangladesh has long played a leading role in building the evidence base for interventions to combat diarrheal disease. This includes early groundbreaking research on oral rehydration solution as well as a pivotal RotaTeq® rotavirus vaccine effectiveness trial that contributed to the 2009 World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation for global rotavirus vaccination. Researchers in Bangladesh also recently completed an effectiveness trial of Rotarix® in Bangladesh to round out the evidence. So it is no surprise that Bangladesh is once again taking a leading role in its upcoming introduction of rotavirus vaccines


How we measure the true impact of diarrheal diseases

How we measure the true impact of diarrheal diseases hrandall Wed, 06/07/2017 – 10:56 Jun 07, 2017 Ibrahim Khalil Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington Puja Rao Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington   The problem: One-time illness or lifelong impairment?   When a child experiences a single episode of diarrhea, they typically feel uncomfortable for a short period of time, but with appropriate care, they recover and continue to live a life free from disability. But when access to safe water and sanitation is limited—and children are constantly exposed to an assortment of bacteria and viruses—what happens when a child experiences frequent bouts of diarrhea without proper remedy? To answer this question, we need to better understand the cyclical relationship of diarrheal diseases and enteric infections during the crucial period of early childhood development and related poor health outcomes that can result over a lifetime.


The DHAKA score: a new paradigm for diarrhoeal disease treatment

The DHAKA score: a new paradigm for diarrhoeal disease treatment hrandall Thu, 06/01/2017 – 10:17 Jun 01, 2017 Zain Ali Communications Consultant, icddr,b While healthy adults can often recover easily from common diarrhoeal pathogens, they have a devastating impact on children: according to the World Health Organization (WHO), half a million children die every year due to diarrhoea, with the majority of deaths occurring in poor countries across the Global South.   Most of these children die because their bodies lose too much water through diarrhoea. The treatment of diarrhoeal diseases like cholera or rotavirus is, therefore, focused heavily on the treatment of dehydration.   In advanced economies, treating dehydration is neither technically nor logistically challenging; most children infected with diarrhoeal pathogens have access to high quality medical care.


Highly conserved type 1 pili promote enterotoxigenic E. coli pathogen-host interactions

by Alaullah Sheikh, Rasheduzzaman Rashu, Yasmin Ara Begum, F. Matthew Kuhlman, Matthew A.


Toddlers, toilet training, and universal access to sanitation

Toddlers, toilet training, and universal access to sanitation hrandall Wed, 05/17/2017 – 12:48 May 17, 2017 Ashley Latimer Senior Advocacy and Communications Officer, PATH I’ve been thinking a lot about toilets lately.  Odd, I know, but I have a toddler who is interested in using the toilet and the prospect of not changing daily diapers is almost too good to be true.  My son is obsessed with using the toilet – he loves to announce when he “has to go.”  He likes to tell everyone that he went “potty” and flushed.  He’s even been known to wave bye-bye as poops swirl down to the septic system. 


What cost-effectiveness means to families: Jacqueline’s story

What cost-effectiveness means to families: Jacqueline’s story hrandall Wed, 05/10/2017 – 10:48 May 10, 2017 Laura Kallen Senior Scientific Communications Associate, PATH This week, I am in the beautiful Balkan country of Montenegro as part of a PATH workshop with immunization decision-makers from across Eastern Europe and Central Asia. The workshop aims to equip these leaders with new cost-effectiveness analysis methods and tools—such as the updated and enhanced UNIVAC cost-effectiveness model from the ProVac Initiative and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, which generates estimates after users enter their own data—as well as provide an overview of how to interpret, disseminate, and use cost-effectiveness analyses to make decisions about rotavirus vaccine introduction. Cost-effectiveness analyses are a key piece of evidence that decision-makers can use to decide to invest in a new public health intervention such as rotavirus vaccines.   Published cost-effectiveness analyses have consistently concluded that the introduction of rotavirus vaccines into low- and middle-income countries would be cost-effective or, in many cases, highly cost-effective.


Arming journalists to join the battle against diarrheal diseases

Arming journalists to join the battle against diarrheal diseases hrandall Wed, 05/03/2017 – 13:41 May 03, 2017 Sushmita Malaviya Senior Communications Officer for the Center for Vaccine Innovation and Access (CVIA) at PATH Back in 2000, when the Indian newspaper the Hindustan Times launched its Bhopal edition and I joined the team, I quickly learned about the importance of ‘local’ editions and the challenge of hunting out stories that would resonate with readers in the city and its adjoining districts. The Hindustan Times was launching this edition in an area that already established Hindi editions of other newspapers.      When I recently attended the ROTA Council’s session on rotavirus and the role of the media, in a room with journalists from Bangladesh, Nepal, Vietnam, Mongolia, Philippines and Myanmar, it seemed to me that I walked back in time to my past life as a journalist. This group of journalists who attended this satellite session during the 6th Asian Vaccine Conference in Singapore had access to the world’s leading voices on diarrheal diseases. The global resources were available, the experts were present to answer questions, yet there seemed to be two challenges: how do journalists nail a story to their region, and how do they keep diarrhea upfront as news?


To achieve sanitation, collective initiative from communities is imperative

To achieve sanitation, collective initiative from communities is imperative hrandall Thu, 04/20/2017 – 12:29 Apr 20, 2017 Sushmita Malaviya Communications Officer for the Vaccine Development program at PATH   Cristina Bicchieri, Professor in the Departments of Philosophy and Psychology at the University of Pennsylvania, was recently in New Delhi where, among other things, she conducted a session on understanding social norms for behavior change with WASH organizations. Keeping in view that social norms are an important topic for India’s work in sanitation, she emphasized that to defeat open defecation, we need to understand the norms and customs that influence open defecation and other sanitation behaviors and then use that information to promote healthier behaviors.   You have been travelling around India, at trainings and visiting sanitation projects. What are your insights?   India is a very interesting country.


State of the field: Vaccines as a sucker punch to gut pathogens

State of the field: Vaccines as a sucker punch to gut pathogens hrandall Wed, 04/19/2017 – 16:32 Apr 23, 2017 defeatDD Vaccines against rotavirus, the leading cause of severe diarrhea in children, are dramatically reducing diarrhea hospitalizations in countries where they’ve been introduced. Image: PATH.   Vaccines are one of the most cost-effective, lifesaving tools available in the arsenal to defeat diarrheal disease and other intestinal bugs that impact child health. And as part of an integrated approach, including good nutrition and improvements to water, sanitation, and hygiene—they can not only save lives but also prevent illness altogether.


In India, bolstering supply and demand for ORS and zinc

In India, bolstering supply and demand for ORS and zinc hrandall Wed, 04/05/2017 – 17:52 Apr 05, 2017 Naresh Trikha CHAI India Director of Essential Medicines After 25 years working for private sector companies in India, I decided to make a career shift. I joined the Clinton Health Access Initiative, Inc. (CHAI) in 2013 to lead its recently-launched program in India to reduce child mortality due to diarrhea in three high-burden states. I was motivated and challenged by this ambitious goal.   At the time, diarrhea was the second leading cause of death among Indian children.


Why I’m feeling more optimistic than ever about defeating rotavirus

Why I’m feeling more optimistic than ever about defeating rotavirus hrandall Wed, 03/29/2017 – 10:08 Mar 29, 2017 Jorge Flores Global Head of Clinical, Center for Vaccine Innovation and Access, PATH Last week, the New England Journal of Medicine published some encouraging new results from a rotavirus vaccine study in Niger. The new vaccine was found to be safe and effective in preventing severe rotavirus diarrhea while being transported and stored at ambient temperature, avoiding the challenging cold-chain requirements that apply to most other vaccines. This news, along with some milestones that may be reached later this year, could make 2017 a real turning point in the fight against this leading cause of severe diarrhea.   Although two globally available rotavirus vaccines have already been introduced into the national immunization programs of more than 80 countries, they remain out of reach for many children in the world’s poorest countries.


Time to “decrypt” a wily parasite

Time to “decrypt” a wily parasite ledison Mon, 03/20/2017 – 11:24 Mar 20, 2017 Robert Choy Cryptosporidium harms children—we need research and development to stop it.   A lot of ugly things in nature are relatively harmless (Exhibit A: the star-nosed mole)—but Cryptosporidium, one of the featured bad guys in the video, “DefeatDD: Superheroes vs. Villains,” isn’t one of them.   Unsettling under a microscope and dangerous in the human body, this tiny parasite is one of the most common causes of diarrheal disease (DD) worldwide. Yet for years, attention and research for “Crypto,” as it’s often called, has lagged.


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