Diahrreal Disease


Controversy over transparency: why non-profits need to disclose their “real” overhead ratio

“The fact is an average of 91 cents of every dollar the Red Cross spends is invested in our humanitarian services and programs.”[1] This is Read More

Reflections on a year of malnutrition

Malnutrition is frustrating. I often sit in the office, analyzing data from our programs, and feel helpless. Children who stay the same height for two Read More

Links between child and adult chronic diseases: Lessons from Guatemala

Since 2013, I have had the great joy of working in rural Guatemala for the non-governmental organization Wuqu’ Kawoq | Maya Health Alliance—first during medical Read More


Children: the most persistent and passionate advocates

Children: the most persistent and passionate advocates hrandall Tue, 09/12/2017 – 13:32 Sep 12, 2017 Hope Randall Digital Communications Officer for DefeatDD I have yet to meet a child who did not want to be a grown up.   My four-year-old niece, Lily, loves sharing her expertise with her baby sister, Rosalie, on how to navigate the ways of the world. Fortunately for her mom, Lily is fastidious about cleanliness: “I don’t like germs. We don’t need to give germs to each other.” She thinks it’s fun to help Rosalie wash her hands, loves to help her mommy do the dishes, and is loud and proud about her recent potty training success.   As much as she wants to be a grown up, though, she is still only four years old

An impossible choice: The dangerous disruption of diarrhea treatment costs

An impossible choice: The dangerous disruption of diarrhea treatment costs hrandall Tue, 09/05/2017 – 10:43 Sep 05, 2017 defeatDD Many families are forced to make the impossible choice between treatment and family finances when their children fall ill with diarrheal disease.   Diarrheal disease isn’t just a medical problem—it’s an economic one, too. We’ve heard from families around the world how the costs of diarrhea treatment can significantly interrupt parents’ livelihoods as well as education, food, and shelter for the rest of the family. A study published in the British Medical Journal provides powerful evidence and deeper insights into the economics of diarrheal disease for families in Malawi. To help break it down, we’re sharing a few of the study’s most fascinating findings

Nutrition and WASH: a recipe for success

Nutrition and WASH: a recipe for success hrandall Wed, 08/30/2017 – 13:53 Aug 30, 2017 Mwandwe Chileshe Global Program Associate at 1,000 Days and a Global Health Corps fellow Originally posted on the 1000 Days website.   In the leadup to World Water Week, WaterAid, SHARE (Sanitation and Hygiene Applied Research for Equity) and Action Against Hunger launched a new report, “The recipe for success,” in which they discuss  a key ingredient for fighting global malnutrition – WASH (water, sanitation and hygiene). The report highlights that 50% of undernutrition in children under five is associated with repeated diarrhea and infections resulting from poor WASH conditions. Additionally, poor sanitation is listed as the second leading cause of stunting worldwide.

Surprising sanitation lessons in Delhi

Surprising sanitation lessons in Delhi hrandall Thu, 08/24/2017 – 12:33 Aug 24, 2017 Hope Randall Digital Communications Officer for DefeatDD I knew enough to know that Delhi would be unlike any other place I’d ever visited. I knew to expect heart-stopping auto rides, colorful chaos, seemingly impossible juxtapositions of gleaming office buildings and tattered tents, and delicious chai wherever I went. Since Delhi is a dynamic city that cannot be contained physically or conceptually, I should have also expected the unexpected even when it came to sanitation, a topic I know (or thought I knew) well. Tiny open-air vehicles called autos share the road with bikes, motorcycles, and full-sized cars and are not for the faint of heart.  I’d read enough before my trip to know that India’s sanitation situation is a special case in many ways

Breastfeeding and child survival

Breastfeeding and child survival hrandall Thu, 08/03/2017 – 17:05 Aug 03, 2017 Ruchika Sachdeva Nutrition Team Leader, PATH Ruchika with her daughters, Shyla and Sadhya.   Breastfeeding provides optimal nutrition and is a pillar of child survival. Despite that, in India, only 42 percent of babies are breastfed in the first hour of birth and only half are exclusively breastfed for the first six months. When I see my daughters, Shyla (10) and Sadhya (5), healthy and smart, I know that breastfeeding played a role in laying a solid foundation for their future.

Child health programs that “color outside the lines”

Child health programs that “color outside the lines” hrandall Thu, 07/27/2017 – 12:14 Jul 27, 2017 Hope Randall Digital Communications Officer for DefeatDD Zari sandwich! PATH team members Cassie Kobrin on the left, Elana Banin on the right.   Nothing was going to keep this DefeatDD team member away from the Hill event, “Ensuring All Children Thrive: A Global Challenge,” which delivered on its promise of muppets, Legos, and ice cream! Co-sponsored by PATH and several partners and true to the ethos of the DefeatDD spirit, the fun-filled atmosphere embodied an important message about child health.

DefeatDD India videos: Behind-the-scenes commentary

DefeatDD India videos: Behind-the-scenes commentary hrandall Thu, 07/06/2017 – 11:41 Jul 09, 2017 defeatDD Earlier this year, the DefeatDD team journeyed to India to gather stories about the burden of diarrheal disease and the continued need for integrated approaches to prevent the vicious cycle of malnutrition, poverty, and poor health.   While the burden of diarrheal disease in India is among the highest in the world, the national momentum for child health and the programs that are already saving lives filled us with optimism and are a beautiful demonstration of what is possible with the right investments. We hope this video series conveys the inspiration we brought back with us.     Video 1: “Health is our right”: India’s momentum against diarrhea     Hope: We hit the jackpot with partner interviews, but I was personally awestruck by Neerja Chowdhury, a political commentator and journalist who has been a passionate advocate against child malnutrition for 30+ years. I was grateful for the opportunity to feature so many Indian voices in these videos, especially Indian women

Telling the world’s most vulnerable children, “We’re in your corner.”

Telling the world’s most vulnerable children, “We’re in your corner.” hrandall Thu, 06/29/2017 – 12:16 Jun 29, 2017 Six years ago, I traveled through rural Western Kenya to gather stories about Alfred Ochola’s one-man mission to restore oral rehydration therapy (ORT) corners in local hospitals. Though I was there to listen and observe, Alfred handed me a hot plate before we entered each clinic and gave me the honor of presenting it to grateful staff (the hot plates facilitated the nurses’ ability to make a healthy meal for recovering ORT therapy patients before discharging them). He reasoned that since the hot plates came from USAID, it would be meaningful if I, a US citizen whose tax dollars had contributed to these supplies, would deliver them. As an individual, I felt humbled.

How cost-effectiveness analysis helped strengthen Bangladesh’s resolve to combat rotavirus

How cost-effectiveness analysis helped strengthen Bangladesh’s resolve to combat rotavirus hrandall Wed, 06/14/2017 – 15:56 Jun 14, 2017 Umesh Parashar Head of the Viral Gastroenteritis team in the Division of Viral Diseases, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) In the lead-up to Bangladesh’s introduction of rotavirus vaccines, a recently published cost-effectiveness analysis helps bolster the evidence base for decision-makers.   Bangladesh has long played a leading role in building the evidence base for interventions to combat diarrheal disease. This includes early groundbreaking research on oral rehydration solution as well as a pivotal RotaTeq® rotavirus vaccine effectiveness trial that contributed to the 2009 World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation for global rotavirus vaccination. Researchers in Bangladesh also recently completed an effectiveness trial of Rotarix® in Bangladesh to round out the evidence. So it is no surprise that Bangladesh is once again taking a leading role in its upcoming introduction of rotavirus vaccines

How we measure the true impact of diarrheal diseases

How we measure the true impact of diarrheal diseases hrandall Wed, 06/07/2017 – 10:56 Jun 07, 2017 Ibrahim Khalil Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington Puja Rao Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington   The problem: One-time illness or lifelong impairment?   When a child experiences a single episode of diarrhea, they typically feel uncomfortable for a short period of time, but with appropriate care, they recover and continue to live a life free from disability. But when access to safe water and sanitation is limited—and children are constantly exposed to an assortment of bacteria and viruses—what happens when a child experiences frequent bouts of diarrhea without proper remedy? To answer this question, we need to better understand the cyclical relationship of diarrheal diseases and enteric infections during the crucial period of early childhood development and related poor health outcomes that can result over a lifetime.

The DHAKA score: a new paradigm for diarrhoeal disease treatment

The DHAKA score: a new paradigm for diarrhoeal disease treatment hrandall Thu, 06/01/2017 – 10:17 Jun 01, 2017 Zain Ali Communications Consultant, icddr,b While healthy adults can often recover easily from common diarrhoeal pathogens, they have a devastating impact on children: according to the World Health Organization (WHO), half a million children die every year due to diarrhoea, with the majority of deaths occurring in poor countries across the Global South.   Most of these children die because their bodies lose too much water through diarrhoea. The treatment of diarrhoeal diseases like cholera or rotavirus is, therefore, focused heavily on the treatment of dehydration.   In advanced economies, treating dehydration is neither technically nor logistically challenging; most children infected with diarrhoeal pathogens have access to high quality medical care.

Highly conserved type 1 pili promote enterotoxigenic E. coli pathogen-host interactions

by Alaullah Sheikh, Rasheduzzaman Rashu, Yasmin Ara Begum, F. Matthew Kuhlman, Matthew A.

Toddlers, toilet training, and universal access to sanitation

Toddlers, toilet training, and universal access to sanitation hrandall Wed, 05/17/2017 – 12:48 May 17, 2017 Ashley Latimer Senior Advocacy and Communications Officer, PATH I’ve been thinking a lot about toilets lately.  Odd, I know, but I have a toddler who is interested in using the toilet and the prospect of not changing daily diapers is almost too good to be true.  My son is obsessed with using the toilet – he loves to announce when he “has to go.”  He likes to tell everyone that he went “potty” and flushed.  He’s even been known to wave bye-bye as poops swirl down to the septic system. 

What cost-effectiveness means to families: Jacqueline’s story

What cost-effectiveness means to families: Jacqueline’s story hrandall Wed, 05/10/2017 – 10:48 May 10, 2017 Laura Kallen Senior Scientific Communications Associate, PATH This week, I am in the beautiful Balkan country of Montenegro as part of a PATH workshop with immunization decision-makers from across Eastern Europe and Central Asia. The workshop aims to equip these leaders with new cost-effectiveness analysis methods and tools—such as the updated and enhanced UNIVAC cost-effectiveness model from the ProVac Initiative and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, which generates estimates after users enter their own data—as well as provide an overview of how to interpret, disseminate, and use cost-effectiveness analyses to make decisions about rotavirus vaccine introduction. Cost-effectiveness analyses are a key piece of evidence that decision-makers can use to decide to invest in a new public health intervention such as rotavirus vaccines.   Published cost-effectiveness analyses have consistently concluded that the introduction of rotavirus vaccines into low- and middle-income countries would be cost-effective or, in many cases, highly cost-effective.

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