Diahrreal Disease


Controversy over transparency: why non-profits need to disclose their “real” overhead ratio

“The fact is an average of 91 cents of every dollar the Red Cross spends is invested in our humanitarian services and programs.”[1] This is Read More

Reflections on a year of malnutrition

Malnutrition is frustrating. I often sit in the office, analyzing data from our programs, and feel helpless. Children who stay the same height for two Read More

Links between child and adult chronic diseases: Lessons from Guatemala

Since 2013, I have had the great joy of working in rural Guatemala for the non-governmental organization Wuqu’ Kawoq | Maya Health Alliance—first during medical Read More


The DHAKA score: a new paradigm for diarrhoeal disease treatment

The DHAKA score: a new paradigm for diarrhoeal disease treatment hrandall Thu, 06/01/2017 – 10:17 Jun 01, 2017 Zain Ali Communications Consultant, icddr,b While healthy adults can often recover easily from common diarrhoeal pathogens, they have a devastating impact on children: according to the World Health Organization (WHO), half a million children die every year due to diarrhoea, with the majority of deaths occurring in poor countries across the Global South.   Most of these children die because their bodies lose too much water through diarrhoea. The treatment of diarrhoeal diseases like cholera or rotavirus is, therefore, focused heavily on the treatment of dehydration.   In advanced economies, treating dehydration is neither technically nor logistically challenging; most children infected with diarrhoeal pathogens have access to high quality medical care.

Highly conserved type 1 pili promote enterotoxigenic E. coli pathogen-host interactions

by Alaullah Sheikh, Rasheduzzaman Rashu, Yasmin Ara Begum, F. Matthew Kuhlman, Matthew A.

Toddlers, toilet training, and universal access to sanitation

Toddlers, toilet training, and universal access to sanitation hrandall Wed, 05/17/2017 – 12:48 May 17, 2017 Ashley Latimer Senior Advocacy and Communications Officer, PATH I’ve been thinking a lot about toilets lately.  Odd, I know, but I have a toddler who is interested in using the toilet and the prospect of not changing daily diapers is almost too good to be true.  My son is obsessed with using the toilet – he loves to announce when he “has to go.”  He likes to tell everyone that he went “potty” and flushed.  He’s even been known to wave bye-bye as poops swirl down to the septic system. 

What cost-effectiveness means to families: Jacqueline’s story

What cost-effectiveness means to families: Jacqueline’s story hrandall Wed, 05/10/2017 – 10:48 May 10, 2017 Laura Kallen Senior Scientific Communications Associate, PATH This week, I am in the beautiful Balkan country of Montenegro as part of a PATH workshop with immunization decision-makers from across Eastern Europe and Central Asia. The workshop aims to equip these leaders with new cost-effectiveness analysis methods and tools—such as the updated and enhanced UNIVAC cost-effectiveness model from the ProVac Initiative and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, which generates estimates after users enter their own data—as well as provide an overview of how to interpret, disseminate, and use cost-effectiveness analyses to make decisions about rotavirus vaccine introduction. Cost-effectiveness analyses are a key piece of evidence that decision-makers can use to decide to invest in a new public health intervention such as rotavirus vaccines.   Published cost-effectiveness analyses have consistently concluded that the introduction of rotavirus vaccines into low- and middle-income countries would be cost-effective or, in many cases, highly cost-effective.

Arming journalists to join the battle against diarrheal diseases

Arming journalists to join the battle against diarrheal diseases hrandall Wed, 05/03/2017 – 13:41 May 03, 2017 Sushmita Malaviya Senior Communications Officer for the Center for Vaccine Innovation and Access (CVIA) at PATH Back in 2000, when the Indian newspaper the Hindustan Times launched its Bhopal edition and I joined the team, I quickly learned about the importance of ‘local’ editions and the challenge of hunting out stories that would resonate with readers in the city and its adjoining districts. The Hindustan Times was launching this edition in an area that already established Hindi editions of other newspapers.      When I recently attended the ROTA Council’s session on rotavirus and the role of the media, in a room with journalists from Bangladesh, Nepal, Vietnam, Mongolia, Philippines and Myanmar, it seemed to me that I walked back in time to my past life as a journalist. This group of journalists who attended this satellite session during the 6th Asian Vaccine Conference in Singapore had access to the world’s leading voices on diarrheal diseases. The global resources were available, the experts were present to answer questions, yet there seemed to be two challenges: how do journalists nail a story to their region, and how do they keep diarrhea upfront as news?

To achieve sanitation, collective initiative from communities is imperative

To achieve sanitation, collective initiative from communities is imperative hrandall Thu, 04/20/2017 – 12:29 Apr 20, 2017 Sushmita Malaviya Communications Officer for the Vaccine Development program at PATH   Cristina Bicchieri, Professor in the Departments of Philosophy and Psychology at the University of Pennsylvania, was recently in New Delhi where, among other things, she conducted a session on understanding social norms for behavior change with WASH organizations. Keeping in view that social norms are an important topic for India’s work in sanitation, she emphasized that to defeat open defecation, we need to understand the norms and customs that influence open defecation and other sanitation behaviors and then use that information to promote healthier behaviors.   You have been travelling around India, at trainings and visiting sanitation projects. What are your insights?   India is a very interesting country.

State of the field: Vaccines as a sucker punch to gut pathogens

State of the field: Vaccines as a sucker punch to gut pathogens hrandall Wed, 04/19/2017 – 16:32 Apr 23, 2017 defeatDD Vaccines against rotavirus, the leading cause of severe diarrhea in children, are dramatically reducing diarrhea hospitalizations in countries where they’ve been introduced. Image: PATH.   Vaccines are one of the most cost-effective, lifesaving tools available in the arsenal to defeat diarrheal disease and other intestinal bugs that impact child health. And as part of an integrated approach, including good nutrition and improvements to water, sanitation, and hygiene—they can not only save lives but also prevent illness altogether.

In India, bolstering supply and demand for ORS and zinc

In India, bolstering supply and demand for ORS and zinc hrandall Wed, 04/05/2017 – 17:52 Apr 05, 2017 Naresh Trikha CHAI India Director of Essential Medicines After 25 years working for private sector companies in India, I decided to make a career shift. I joined the Clinton Health Access Initiative, Inc. (CHAI) in 2013 to lead its recently-launched program in India to reduce child mortality due to diarrhea in three high-burden states. I was motivated and challenged by this ambitious goal.   At the time, diarrhea was the second leading cause of death among Indian children.

Why I’m feeling more optimistic than ever about defeating rotavirus

Why I’m feeling more optimistic than ever about defeating rotavirus hrandall Wed, 03/29/2017 – 10:08 Mar 29, 2017 Jorge Flores Global Head of Clinical, Center for Vaccine Innovation and Access, PATH Last week, the New England Journal of Medicine published some encouraging new results from a rotavirus vaccine study in Niger. The new vaccine was found to be safe and effective in preventing severe rotavirus diarrhea while being transported and stored at ambient temperature, avoiding the challenging cold-chain requirements that apply to most other vaccines. This news, along with some milestones that may be reached later this year, could make 2017 a real turning point in the fight against this leading cause of severe diarrhea.   Although two globally available rotavirus vaccines have already been introduced into the national immunization programs of more than 80 countries, they remain out of reach for many children in the world’s poorest countries.

Time to “decrypt” a wily parasite

Time to “decrypt” a wily parasite ledison Mon, 03/20/2017 – 11:24 Mar 20, 2017 Robert Choy Cryptosporidium harms children—we need research and development to stop it.   A lot of ugly things in nature are relatively harmless (Exhibit A: the star-nosed mole)—but Cryptosporidium, one of the featured bad guys in the video, “DefeatDD: Superheroes vs. Villains,” isn’t one of them.   Unsettling under a microscope and dangerous in the human body, this tiny parasite is one of the most common causes of diarrheal disease (DD) worldwide. Yet for years, attention and research for “Crypto,” as it’s often called, has lagged.

From Flint to the Philippines, water is power

From Flint to the Philippines, water is power ledison Fri, 03/10/2017 – 14:23 Mar 22, 2017 defeatDD We at DefeatDD stand in awe of the power of water. Without water, there would be no life. We drink it, we grow and cook our food with it, we wash our hands, bodies, and clothes with it, we flush our waste away with it, we use it for recreation and transportation, and we are mostly made of it. Water is a basic human necessity and a human right. If water is not safe and clean, however, it can become a death sentence.

Welcome to the new and improved DefeatDD.org!

Welcome to the new and improved DefeatDD.org! hrandall Thu, 03/02/2017 – 10:49 Mar 02, 2017 Hope Randall Digital Communications Officer for DefeatDD Welcome to the brand spanking new DefeatDD.org! It’s the same crew, same priorities, and (mostly) the same content – just with an updated look, feel, and organization.   As the DefeatDD team took on this website redesign, friends and colleagues have often asked me why. Well, for starters, our site is eight years old – which is, like, 1000 years old in digital years

In Savda Ghevra, a faecal sludge management system encourages families to build and use toilets

In Savda Ghevra, a faecal sludge management system encourages families to build and use toilets hrandall Thu, 02/23/2017 – 22:59 Feb 21, 2017 The 4th International Faecal Sludge Management Conference is underway this week in Chennai, India, and there are several unresolved issues that need to be discussed, the most critical being the sewage that typically ends up staying inside poor urban settlements, with significant health and environmental implications.   In 2007, the Centre for Urban and Regional Excellence (CURE) began working in Savda Ghevra, the largest planned resettlement colony at the North West edge of Delhi, helping with the rehabilitation processes. Water and livelihoods, followed by toilets, emerged as key community priorities, particularly for women.   Savda lacks sanitation infrastructure. Its community toilets, fitted with septic tanks, are mostly unusable and frequently overflow, forcing people to defecate openly and without dignity. 

In New Report, European Food, Disease Agencies Warn Drug-Resistant Bacteria Pose ‘Alarming’…

Reuters: ‘Alarming’ superbugs a risk to people, animals, and food, E.U. warns “Superbug bacteria found in people, animals, and food across the European Union pose an ‘alarming’ threat to public and animal health having evolved to resist widely used antibiotics, disease and safety experts warned on Wednesday. A report on antimicrobial resistance in bacteria by…More

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