In the wake of a disaster a lot of people talk about resilience, the resilience to survive and move on, to overcome. But this notion…
KAMPALA, Uganda — The US has been giving foreign aid to NGOs — not the country’s government — to fight malaria in Uganda. And recent…
The use of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) has been offered in stable malaria transmission countries for over a decade. As observations continued that SP resistance was growing in children treated for malaria, SP was dropped as a recommended treatment drug in all malaria-endemic countries in Africa. Ironically SP is still commonly found in pharmacy and medicine shops in many countries. While SP resistance in child treatment has been documented, studies directly testing this in pregnant women have not been designed due to the usual concerns about the effect of medicines in pregnancy. Already the recommendation for IPTp excluded its use in the first trimester. What has been observed though not that SP does not work, but that its half-life or period of effectiveness has been reduced. Therefore WHO still recommends SP for IPTp, but more frequently
Background: The sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine (SDX/PYR) combination had been chosen to treat uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Malaysia for more than 30 years. Non-silent mutations in dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) genes are responsible for the resistance to pyrimethamine and sulphadoxine, respectively. This study reports the mutational analysis of pfdhfr and pfdhps in single Plasmodium falciparum infection isolates from the interior division of Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Methods: A total of 22 P. falciparum single infection isolates collected from two districts of the interior division of Sabah from February to November 2010 were recruited for the mutational study of pfdhfr and pfdhps.
Background: The transmission of malaria in Indonesia is highly heterogeneous spatially and seasonally. Anti-malaria antibody responses can help characterize this variation. In the present study antibody responses to Plasmodium falciparum MSP-1 and AMA-1 were measured to assess the transmission intensity in a hypo-endemic area of Purworejo and a meso-endemic area of Lampung during low and high transmission seasons. Methods: Filter-paper blood spot samples collected from Purworejo and Lampung by cross-sectional survey during high and low transmission season were stored at -20[degree sign]C.
Background: The objectives of the study were to elucidate the gender-specific distribution of mefloquine in cellular and fluid blood compartments when given at therapeutic dosage, to assess its correlation with the occurrence of treatment-related adverse events, and to explore the necessity of adjusting treatment guidelines for females. Methods: The distribution of mefloquine following the administration of standard therapeutic doses (1,250 mg mefloquine in split dose) to 22 healthy Caucasian volunteers was assessed in whole blood, serum, plasma, red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells, and platelets using high performance liquid chromatography. Results: Plasma mefloquine concentrations after 14 hours were considerably higher in female subjects than in males (2,778 vs 1,017 ng/ml at H14), concordant with a significantly higher frequency, duration, and severity of adverse reactions. However, mean drug concentrations of RBC appeared slightly higher in male volunteers (857 vs 719 ng/ml). At H48, a similar situation prevailed, and at H168 the mefloquine concentrations in plasma continued to be higher in females compared to males (1,353 vs 666 ng/ml), while the concentrations of RBC were similar in females (389 vs 375 ng/ml).
The Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) 2013 Draft Preliminary Report from the National Population Commission, Abuja, Nigeria and MEASURE DHS, ICF International, Calverton, Maryland, USA was released in-country in September 2013. These are the same organizations that conducted the 2010 Malaria Information Survey (MIS). From the malaria perspective this has been a long anticipated event since the country has distributed over 60 million long lasting insecticide-treated nets since 2009. The 2010 MIS showed some progress over the 2008 DHS, but since it took place near the beginning of the massive net distribution effort, there was hope that a subsequent survey would highlight an improvement. If that were the expectation, people will be quite disappointed
Background: Serum lipid profile changes have been observed during malaria infection. The underlying biological mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview on those serum lipid profile changes, and to discuss possible underlying biological mechanisms and the role of lipids in malaria pathogenesis. Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis to determine lipid profile changes during malaria was conducted, following PRISMA guidelines.
Noting donors have pledged $12 billion over the next three years to support the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, $3 billion short of the fund’s goal, a New York Times editorial says the amount is “a vote of confidence in the programs at a time when many nations face fiscal constraints.” However,…More
In two posts, the Center for Global Health Policy’s “Science Speaks” blog summarizes a Georgetown University event that took place Wednesday, titled “The Global Fund 2014-2016: Sustaining the Fight Against AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria.” In the first post, the blog includes comments from speakers Mark Dybul, Global Fund executive director; David Stevenson, director of global…More
The following new articles are publishing this week in PLOS NTDs: Hester J, Chan ER, Menard D, Mercereau-Puijalon O, Barnwell J, et al. (2013). PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7(12): e2569. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0002569 P.
Background: Malaria treatment efforts are hindered by the rapid emergence and spread of drug resistant parasites. Simple assays to monitor parasite drug response in direct patient samples (ex vivo) can detect drug resistance before it becomes clinically apparent, and can inform changes in treatment policy to prevent the spread of resistance. Methods: Parasite drug responses to amodiaquine, artemisinin, chloroquine and mefloquine were tested in approximately 400 Plasmodium falciparum malaria infections in Thies, Senegal between 2008 and 2011 using a DAPI-based ex vivo drug resistance assay. Drug resistance-associated mutations were also genotyped in pfcrt and pfmdr1. Results: Parasite drug responses changed between 2008 and 2011, as parasites became less sensitive to amodiaquine, artemisinin and chloroquine over time.
Background: A series of elegant experiments was recently published which demonstrated that transmission of malaria parasites through mosquitoes elicited an attenuated growth phenotype, whereby infections grew more slowly and reached peak parasitaemia at least five-fold lower than parasites which had not been mosquito transmitted. To assess the implications of these results it is essential to understand whether the attenuated infection phenotype is a general phenomenon across parasites genotypes and conditions. Methods: Using previously published data, the impact of mosquito transmission on parasite growth rates and virulence of six Plasmodium chabaudi lines was analysed. Results: The effect of mosquito transmission varied among strains, but did not lead to pronounced or consistent reductions in parasite growth rate. Conclusions: Mosquito-induced attenuated growth phenotype is sensitive to experimental conditions.