Neglected Tropical Diseases

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Cynthia GoldsmithThis colorized transmission electron micrograph (TEM) revealed some of the ultrastructural morphology displayed by an Ebola virus virion. See PHIL 1832 for a black and white version of this image.Where is Ebola virus found in nature?The exact origin, locations, and natural habitat (known as the "natural reservoir") of Ebola virus remain unknown. However, on the basis of available evidence and the nature of similar viruses, researchers believe that the virus is zoonotic (animal-borne) and is normally maintained in an animal host that is native to the African continent. A similar host is probably associated with Ebola-Reston which was isolated from infected cynomolgous monkeys that were imported to the United States and Italy from the Philippines. The virus is not known to be native to other continents, such as North America.

A virologist in the hot zone

Science/AAAS | Q & A with Virologist Heinz Feldmann, who co-developed one of the Ebola vaccine candidates and recently visited Monrovia, Liberia, to work in Read More

africa-map-wiki-Author-Hristov

Sierra Leone: Ebola hospital staff walk out due to lack of pay

September 16, 2014 Health workers walked out of an Ebola ward in a district hospital

WHO

WHO welcomes Chinese contribution of mobile laboratory and health experts for Ebola response in…

WHO welcomes the commitment from the Government of the People’s Republic of China to dispatch a mobile laboratory team to Sierra Leone to enhance the laboratory testing capacity for Ebola virus disease (EVD) in the country. The contribution comes in response to WHO’s appeal for further assistance to Ebola response efforts in Africa and requests by the government of Sierra Leone. In addition to laboratory experts, the 59-person team from the Chinese Centre for Disease Control will include epidemiologists, clinicians and nurses. They will support Ebola response efforts at the China-Sierra Leone Friendship Hospital, which was built in 2012 with assistance from the Chinese Government.

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Correction: Fleas of Small Mammals on Reunion Island: Diversity, Distribution and…

by The PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases Staff


A New Approach for Monitoring Ebolavirus in Wild Great Apes

by Patricia E. Reed, Sabue Mulangu, Kenneth N. Cameron, Alain U


In Situ Immune Response in Human Chromoblastomycosis – A Possible Role for Regulatory and…

by Aline Alves de Lima Silva, Paulo Ricardo Criado, Ricardo Spina Nunes, Wellington Luiz Ferreira da Silva, Luciane Kanashiro-Galo, Maria Irma Seixas Duarte, Mirian N. Sotto, Carla Pagliari Background Chromoblastomycosis is a chronic fungal infection that affects skin and subcutaneous tissue. Lesions can be classified in tumorous, verrucous, cicatricial and plaque type


Sporotrichosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Sporothrix brasiliensis Is Associated with Atypical…

by Rodrigo Almeida-Paes, Manoel Marques Evangelista de Oliveira, Dayvison Francis Saraiva Freitas, Antônio Carlos Francesconi do Valle, Rosely Maria Zancopé-Oliveira, Maria Clara Gutierrez-Galhardo Background There have been several recent changes in the taxonomy of Sporothrix schenckii as well as new observations regarding the clinical aspects of sporotrichosis. In this study, we determined the identification of the Sporothrix species associated with both classic and unusual clinical aspects of sporotrichosis observed in the endemic area of sporotrichosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methodology/Principal Findings To verify whether S.


All That Glisters Is Not Gold: Sampling-Process Uncertainty in Disease-Vector Surveys with…

by Fernando Abad-Franch, Carolina Valença-Barbosa, Otília Sarquis, Marli M. Lima Background Vector-borne diseases are major public health concerns worldwide. For many of them, vector control is still key to primary prevention, with control actions planned and evaluated using vector occurrence records


Status of Onchocerciasis Transmission after More Than a Decade of Mass Drug Administration for…

by Darin S. Evans, Kal Alphonsus, Jon Umaru, Abel Eigege, Emmanuel Miri, Hayward Mafuyai, Carlos Gonzales-Peralta, William Adamani, Elias Pede, Christopher Umbugadu, Yisa Saka, Bridget Okoeguale, Frank O. Richards Background This study was undertaken in five onchocerciasis/lymphatic filariasis (LF) co-endemic local government areas (LGAs) in Plateau and Nasarawa, Nigeria


Mortality Rates above Emergency Threshold in Population Affected by Conflict in North Kivu,…

by Antonio Isidro Carrión Martín, Karla Bil, Papy Salumu, Dominique Baabo, Jatinder Singh, Corry Kik, Annick Lenglet The area of Walikale in North Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo, is intensely affected by conflict and population displacement. Médecins-Sans-Frontières (MSF) returned to provide primary healthcare in July 2012.


Visceral Leishmaniasis and HIV Coinfection in Latin America

by José Angelo Lindoso, Gláucia Fernandes Cota, Alda Maria da Cruz, Hiro Goto, Ana Nilce Silveira Maia-Elkhoury, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra Romero, Márcia Leite de Sousa-Gomes, Joanna Reis Santos-Oliveira, Ana Rabello Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an endemic zoonotic disease in Latin America caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, which is transmitted by sand flies from the genus Lutzomyia. VL occurs in 12 countries of Latin America, with 96% of cases reported in Brazil. Recently, an increase in VL, primarily affecting children and young adults, has been observed in urban areas of Latin America


Geographic Separation of Domestic and Wild Strains of Toxoplasma gondii in French Guiana…

by Asis Khan, Daniel Ajzenberg, Aurélien Mercier, Magalie Demar, Stéphane Simon, Marie Laure Dardé, Qiuling Wang, Shiv Kumar Verma, Benjamin M. Rosenthal, Jitender P.


NLRC4 and TLR5 Each Contribute to Host Defense in Respiratory Melioidosis

by T. Eoin West, Nicolle D. Myers, Narisara Chantratita, Wirongrong Chierakul, Direk Limmathurotsakul, Vanaporn Wuthiekanun, Edward A.


Repurposed Automated Handheld Counter as a Point-of-Care Tool to Identify Individuals ‘At…

by Sasisekhar Bennuru, Sébastien D. S.


Genome of the Avirulent Human-Infective Trypanosome—Trypanosoma rangeli

by Patrícia Hermes Stoco, Glauber Wagner, Carlos Talavera-Lopez, Alexandra Gerber, Arnaldo Zaha, Claudia Elizabeth Thompson, Daniella Castanheira Bartholomeu, Débora Denardin Lückemeyer, Diana Bahia, Elgion Loreto, Elisa Beatriz Prestes, Fábio Mitsuo Lima, Gabriela Rodrigues-Luiz, Gustavo Adolfo Vallejo, José Franco da Silveira Filho, Sérgio Schenkman, Karina Mariante Monteiro, Kevin Morris Tyler, Luiz Gonzaga Paula de Almeida, Mauro Freitas Ortiz, Miguel Angel Chiurillo, Milene Höehr de Moraes, Oberdan de Lima Cunha, Rondon Mendonça-Neto, Rosane Silva, Santuza Maria Ribeiro Teixeira, Silvane Maria Fonseca Murta, Thais Cristine Marques Sincero, Tiago Antonio de Oliveira Mendes, Turán Peter Urmenyi, Viviane Grazielle Silva, Wanderson Duarte DaRocha, Björn Andersson, Álvaro José Romanha, Mário Steindel, Ana Tereza Ribeiro de Vasconcelos, Edmundo Carlos Grisard Background Trypanosoma rangeli is a hemoflagellate protozoan parasite infecting humans and other wild and domestic mammals across Central and South America. It does not cause human disease, but it can be mistaken for the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, Trypanosoma cruzi. We have sequenced the T.


IL28B Gene Polymorphism SNP rs8099917 Genotype GG Is Associated with HTLV-1-Associated…

by Tatiane Assone, Fernando Vieira de Souza, Karen Oliveira Gaester, Luiz Augusto Marcondes Fonseca, Olinda do Carmo Luiz, Fernanda Malta, João Renato Rebello Pinho, Fernanda de Toledo Gonçalves, Alberto Jose da Silva Duarte, Augusto Cesar Penalva de Oliveira, Jorge Casseb Background The polymorphisms of IL28B have been described as important in the pathogenesis of infections caused by some viruses. The aim of this research was to evaluate whether IL28B gene polymorphisms (SNP rs8099917 and SNP rs12979860) are associated with HAM/TSP.


Extracellular Vesicles from Leishmania-Infected Macrophages Confer an Anti-infection…

by André Cronemberger-Andrade, Luciana Aragão-França, Cintia Figueiredo de Araujo, Viviane Junqueira Rocha, Mariana da Cruz Borges-Silva, Cláudio P. Figueiras, Pablo R.


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