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It was well after midnight in San Francisco when Eugenio (“Geno”) de Hostos picked up the phone—but when his colleagues in China answered, he felt the familiar jolt of excitement. He’d felt the same thrill at dawn, talking to his colleagues in Switzerland. At five, in a call to Maryland with the US Food and […] ; ; ; ;Related StoriesWaking from sleeping sickness in the DRCThe surprising consequences of tuberculosisPATH is at SXSW ;

Insecticidal Paints: A Realistic Approach to Vector Control?

by Karin L. Schiøler, Michael Alifrangis, Uriel Kitron, Flemming Konradsen

News in the Humanosphere: Angola suffers worst Yellow Fever outbreak in 30 years

Angola is grappling with a yellow fever outbreak, which has infected more than 450 people and killed 178 – the first epidemic of the disease to hit the country in 30 years. The outbreak, which was first reported in the capital city Luanda in December 2015, has since spread to 6 of the country’s 18

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Chronic <i>Trichuris muris</i> infection causes neoplastic change in the intestine…

by Kelly S. Hayes, Laura J. Cliffe, Alison J.


Urban Chikungunya in the Middle East and North Africa: A systematic review

by John M. Humphrey, Natalie B. Cleton, Chantal B


Effect of praziquantel on the differential expression of mouse hepatic genes and parasite ATP…

by Melissa C. Sanchez, Katina V.


Novel inference models for estimation of abundance, survivorship and recruitment in mosquito…

by Daniel Antunes Maciel Villela, Gabriela de Azambuja Garcia, Rafael Maciel-de-Freitas Background Experiments involving mosquito mark-release-recapture (MRR) design are helpful to determine abundance, survival and even recruitment of mosquito populations in the field. Obstacles in mosquito MRR protocols include marking limitations due to small individual size, short lifespan, low efficiency in capturing devices such as traps, and individual removal upon capture. These limitations usually make MRR analysis restricted to only abundance estimation or a combination of abundance and survivorship, and often generate a great degree of uncertainty about the estimations


A study of ticks and tick-borne livestock pathogens in Pakistan

by Shahid Karim, Khemraj Budachetri, Nabanita Mukherjee, Jaclyn Williams, Asma Kausar, Muhammad Jawadul Hassan, Steven Adamson, Scot E. Dowd, Dmitry Apanskevich, Abdullah Arijo, Zia Uddin Sindhu, Muhammad Azam Kakar, Raja Muhammad Dilpazir Khan, Shafiq Ullah, Muhammad Sohail Sajid, Abid Ali, Zafar Iqbal Background As obligate blood-feeding arthropods, ticks transmit pathogens to humans and domestic animals more often than other arthropod vectors. Livestock farming plays a vital role in the rural economy of Pakistan, and tick infestation causes serious problems with it


Interleukin-4 receptor alpha is still required after Th2 polarization for the maintenance and…

by Justin Komguep Nono, Hlumani Ndlovu, Nada Abdel Aziz, Thabo Mpotje, Lerato Hlaka, Frank Brombacher There is currently no vaccine against parasitic nematodes and the knowledge on the mechanisms by which protective immunity against this class of parasites is achieved is continuously expanding. Nematode parasites trigger a host protective type 2 immune response via interleukin-4 receptor alpha (IL-4Rα). Despite this central role, it is not known whether IL-4Rα has a role in maintaining host type 2 immune responses following polarization.


Suppression of chikungunya virus replication and differential innate responses of human…

by Mariana Ruiz Silva, José A. Aguilar Briseño, Vinit Upasani, Heidi van der Ende-Metselaar, Jolanda M.


Evaluation of different serological assays for early diagnosis of leptospirosis in Martinique…

by Christophe Courdurie, Yohann Le Govic, Pascale Bourhy, Dorothee Alexer, Karine Pailla, Rafaelle Theodose, Raymond Cesaire, Jacques Rosine, Patrick Hochedez, Claude Olive Background Leptospirosis is a potentially life-threatening but curable zoonosis whose prognosis depends on accurate and timely diagnosis. Because of its non-specific clinical presentation, laboratory testing is essential to confirm the diagnosis.


American Zika in 2016 and 2017: The Strange Case of Mr. Hyde and Dr. Jekyll

As North America heads into summer, Peter Hotez, co-Editor-in-Chief of PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, discusses the risk for Zika outbreaks and hopes Mr. Hyde doesn’t rear his ugly head. In 1886 Mr. Robert Louis Stevenson published


The interplay of climate, intervention and imported cases as determinants of the 2014 dengue…

by Qu Cheng, Qinlong Jing, Robert C. Spear, John M. Marshall, Zhicong Yang, Peng Gong Dengue is a fast spreading mosquito-borne disease that affects more than half of the population worldwide


Development of ELISAs for diagnosis of acute typhoid fever in Nigerian children

by Jiin Felgner, Aarti Jain, Rie Nakajima, Li Liang, Algis Jasinskas, Eduardo Gotuzzo, Joseph M. Vinetz, Fabio Miyajima, Munir Pirmohamed, Fatimah Hassan-Hanga, Dominic Umoru, Binta Wudil Jibir, Safiya Gambo, Kudirat Olateju, Philip L. Felgner, Stephen Obaro, D


Challenges in preparing and implementing a clinical trial at field level in an Ebola emergency:…

by Sara Carazo Perez, Elin Folkesson, Xavier Anglaret, Abdoul-Habib Beavogui, Emmanuel Berbain, Alseny-Modet Camara, Evelyn Depoortere, Annabelle Lefevre, Piet Maes, Kristian Nødtvedt Malme, Jean-Marie Denis Malvy, Sien Ombelet, Geertrui Poelaert, Daouda Sissoko, Alexis Tounkara, Pierre Trbovic, Pascal Piguet, Annick Antierens Author summary: During the large Ebola outbreak that affected West Africa in 2014 and 2015, studies were launched to evaluate potential treatments for the disease. A clinical trial to evaluate the effectiveness of the antiviral drug favipiravir was conducted in Guinea.


Human lagochilascariasis—A rare helminthic disease

by Dulcinea Maria Barbosa Campos, Alverne Passos Barbosa, Jayrson Araújo de Oliveira, Giovana Galvão Tavares, Pedro Vitor Lemos Cravo, Alejandro Luquetti Ostermayer Lagochilascariasis is a parasitic disease caused by a helminth of the order Ascaroidea, genus Lagochilascaris that comprises 6 species, among which only Lagochilascaris minor Leiper, 1909, is implicated in the human form of the disease. It is remarkable that the majority of cases of human lagochilascariasis in the Americas have been reported in Brazil.


Estimating the number of secondary Ebola cases resulting from an unsafe burial and risk factors…

by Amanda Tiffany, Benjamin D. Dalziel, Hilary Kagume Njenge, Ginger Johnson, Roselyn Nugba Ballah, Daniel James, Abdoulaye Wone, Juliet Bedford, Amanda McClelland Background Safely burying Ebola infected individuals is acknowledged to be important for controlling Ebola epidemics and was a major component of the 2013–2016 West Africa Ebola response. Yet, in order to understand the impact of safe burial programs it is necessary to elucidate the role of unsafe burials in sustaining chains of Ebola transmission and how the risk posed by activities surrounding unsafe burials, including care provided at home prior to death, vary with human behavior and geography.


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