by Thaddeus T. Gbem, Mario Waespy, Bettina Hesse, Frank Dietz, Joel Smith, Gloria D. Chechet, Jonathan A. Nok, Sørge Kelm Trans-sialidases are key enzymes in the life cycle of African trypanosomes in both, mammalian host and insect vector and have been associated with the disease trypanosomiasis, namely sleeping sickness and nagana. Besides the previously reported TconTS1, we have identified three additional active trans-sialidases, TconTS2, TconTS3 and TconTS4, and three trans-sialidase like genes in Trypanosoma congolense.
by Brian K. Chu, Michael Deming, Nana-Kwadwo Biritwum, Windtaré R. Bougma, Améyo M. Dorkenoo, Maged El-Setouhy, Peter U. Fischer, Katherine Gass, Manuel Gonzalez de Peña, Leda Mercado-Hernandez, Dominique Kyelem, Patrick J.
by Sanchita Das, Priyanka Shah, Rajendra K. Baharia, Rati Tandon, Prashant Khare, Shyam Sundar, Amogh A. Sahasrabuddhe, M. I. Siddiqi, Anuradha Dube Background Sodium antimony gluconate (SAG) unresponsiveness of Leishmania donovani (Ld) had effectively compromised the chemotherapeutic potential of SAG
The Global Network for Neglected Tropical Diseases’ “End The Neglect” blog features a round up of innovations and findings presented at the recent American Society for Tropical Medicine and Hygiene’s annual meeting. “The Global Network attended many of the sessions, ranging from how to integrate NTD treatments with water, sanitation, and hygiene programs and assessing progress…More
Dear Colleagues, This week our colleague An Appelmans wrote the introduction to this newsletter. She will soon leave ITM, on Friday 13th apparently. After a rather drastic ‘Facebook status’ update last year, when she played the lead role in ‘One Wedding and Four Kids’, An is now looking for greener pastures. She will be missed in Antwerp, as a friend and as a very committed colleague. Below you find her ‘farewell message to global health’.
by José Lino Zumaquero-Ríos, Jorge Sarracent-Pérez, Raúl Rojas-García, Lázara Rojas-Rivero, Yaneth Martínez-Tovilla, María Adela Valero, Santiago Mas-Coma Background The Atlixco municipality, Puebla State, at a mean altitude of 1840 m, was selected for a study of Fasciola hepatica infection in schoolchildren in Mexico. This area presents permanent water collections continuously receiving thaw water from Popocatepetl volcano (5426 m altitude) through the community supply channels, conforming an epidemiological scenario similar to those known in hyperendemic areas of Andean countries. Methodology and Findings A total of 865 6–14 year-old schoolchildren were analyzed with FasciDIG coproantigen test and Lumbreras rapid sedimentation technique, and quantitatively assessed with Kato-Katz. Fascioliasis prevalences ranged 2.94–13.33% according to localities (mean 5.78%).
by Omowunmi Aibana, Molly Franke, Jessica Teng, Johanne Hilaire, Max Raymond, Louise C. Ivers Background Haiti’s cholera epidemic has been devastating partly due to underlying weak infrastructure and limited clean water and sanitation. A comprehensive approach to cholera control is crucial, yet some have argued that oral cholera vaccination (OCV) might result in reduced hygiene practice among recipients. We evaluated the impact of an OCV campaign on knowledge and health practice in rural Haiti.
by Jing-ying Xiao, Ji-Yun Lee, Shinji Tokuhiro, Mitsuru Nagataki, Blanca R. Jarilla, Haruka Nomura, Tae Im Kim, Sung-Jong Hong, Takeshi Agatsuma Background Adult Clonorchis sinensis lives in the bile duct and causes endemic clonorchiasis in East Asian countries. Phosphagen kinases (PK) constitute a highly conserved family of enzymes, which play a role in ATP buffering in cells, and are potential targets for chemotherapeutic agents, since variants of PK are found only in invertebrate animals, including helminthic parasites. This work is conducted to characterize a PK from C. sinensis and to address further investigation for future drug development
by Alejandra de-la-Torre, Arnaud Sauer, Alexander W. Pfaff, Tristan Bourcier, Julie Brunet, Claude Speeg-Schatz, Laurent Ballonzoli, Odile Villard, Daniel Ajzenberg, Natarajan Sundar, Michael E. Grigg, Jorge E. Gomez-Marin, Ermanno Candolfi In a cross sectional study, 19 French and 23 Colombian cases of confirmed active ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) were evaluated. The objective was to compare clinical, parasitological and immunological responses and relate them to the infecting strains.
by Peter J. Hotez The concept of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) was established in the aftermath of the Millennium Development Goals. Here, we summarize the emergence of several new post-2010 global health documents and policies, and how they may alter the way we frame the world’s major NTDs since they were first highlighted. These documents include a new Global Burden of Disease 2010 Study that identifies visceral leishmaniasis and food-borne trematode infections as priority diseases beyond the seven NTDs originally targeted by preventive chemotherapy, a London Declaration for access to essential medicines, and a 2013 World Health Assembly resolution on NTDs. Additional information highlights an emerging dengue fever pandemic
by Roberta Rosa, Erica Azevedo Costa, Rafael Elias Marques, Taismara Simas Oliveira, Ronaldo Furtini, Maria Rosa Quaresma Bomfim, Mauro Martins Teixeira, Tatiane Alves Paixão, Renato Lima Santos St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) is a causative agent of encephalitis in humans in the Western hemisphere. SLEV is a positive-sense RNA virus that belongs to the Flavivirus genus, which includes West Nile encephalitis virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, Dengue virus and other medically important viruses. Recently, we isolated a SLEV strain from the brain of a horse with neurological signs in the countryside of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The SLEV isolation was confirmed by reverse-transcription RT-PCR and sequencing of the E protein gene.
by Monica K. Borucki, Haiyin Chen-Harris, Victoria Lao, Gilda Vanier, Debra A. Wadford, Sharon Messenger, Jonathan E. Allen One of the hurdles to understanding the role of viral quasispecies in RNA virus cross-species transmission (CST) events is the need to analyze a densely sampled outbreak using deep sequencing in order to measure the amount of mutation occurring on a small time scale. In 2009, the California Department of Public Health reported a dramatic increase (350) in the number of gray foxes infected with a rabies virus variant for which striped skunks serve as a reservoir host in Humboldt County.
by Jean-François Ritt, Frédéric Raymond, Philippe Leprohon, Danielle Légaré, Jacques Corbeil, Marc Ouellette Background The human protozoan parasites Leishmania are prototrophic for pyrimidines with the ability of both de novo biosynthesis and uptake of pyrimidines. Methodology/Principal Findings Five independent L. infantum mutants were selected for resistance to the pyrimidine analogue 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in the hope to better understand the metabolism of pyrimidine in Leishmania. Analysis of the 5-FU mutants by comparative genomic hybridization and whole genome sequencing revealed in selected mutants the amplification of DHFR-TS and a deletion of part of chromosome 10. Point mutations in uracil phosphorybosyl transferase (UPRT), thymidine kinase (TK) and uridine phosphorylase (UP) were also observed in three individual resistant mutants.