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New data, editorials and podcasts on Malaria @NEJM

The July 31st issue of the New England Journal has several new pieces on Malaria – ranging from original articles on “Artemisinin Resistance in P. falciparum” Read More

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How to reach every newborn: three key messages

The Every Newborn Action Plan (ENAP) launched on June 30–July 1, 2014, envisages a world without preventable deaths of newborn infants. The challenge is not technical (effective interventions exist), but instead social. The odds of a child surviving the first month of life are grossly unequal, even within one country, and are affected by wealth, education, caste, and access to health care. Large gains are achievable when interventions reach people who are in need, but this rarely occurs. Without dedicated efforts to reach poor people, ENAP initiatives are likely to favour wealthier people who have the lowest mortality risk.

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#Post2015 health goals: could country-specific targets supplement global ones?

Although Millennium Development Goals 4, 5, and 6 have helped mobilise global action to improve health, many sub-Saharan African countries will not come close to Read More

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[Comment] Avahan and the cost-effectiveness of “prevention as prevention”

Avahan, the India AIDS Initiative funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, is one of the largest HIV prevention programmes targeted to populations at high risk of infection. The initiative operated across 22 districts and committed US$258 million from 2004 to 2009, reaching 154 425 individuals. Through work with non-governmental organisations (NGOs), and a focus on peer-led interventions, it offered a package of services that included risk-reduction education, access to condoms, screening and treatment for sexually transmitted infection, and referral to clinical services as appropriate.


[Comment] Excess female mortality in infants and children

The sex ratio of mortality in children younger than 5 years (under-5s) has always been regarded as an important indicator for child health and survival, especially in the context of sex preference and discrimination in many cultures such as those in south Asia. However, the effective use of this indicator to improve child health and survival has been constrained by the absence of a clear understanding of what the ideal ratio should be.


Alcohol, ideological schisms and a science of corporate behaviours on health

Critical Public Health, Ahead of Print.


Guidance on priority setting in health care (GPS-Health): the inclusion of equity criteria not…

This Guidance for Priority Setting in Health Care (GPS-Health), initiated by the World Health Organization, offers a comprehensive map of equity criteria that are relevant to health care priority setting and should be considered in addition to cost-effectiveness analysis.


Timely measles vaccination in Tianjin, China: a cross-sectional study of immunization records…

Background: Measles is a highly infectious disease, and timely administration of two doses of vaccine can ensure adequate protection against measles for all ages in a population.


Catchments of general practice in different countries- a literature review

The purpose of this paper is to review the current research on catchment areas of private general practices in different developed countries because healthcare reform, including primary health care, has featured prominently as an important political issue in a number of developed countries.


Low risk of attrition among adults on antiretroviral therapy in the Rwandan national program: a…

Background: We report on levels and determinants of attrition in Rwanda, one of the few African countries with universal ART access.


[Comment] Tobacco use in pregnancy: a window of opportunity for prevention

Tobacco use is poised to kill as many as 1 billion people in the 21st century, primarily from non-communicable diseases. Less often noted is the effect of tobacco use and second-hand smoke exposure on maternal and child health. Cigarette smoking during pregnancy poses serious risk to the mother and her developing child, and second-hand smoke exposure is now recognised as an important cause of adult and child morbidity and mortality. Pregnancy is an ideal opportunity to intervene with mothers and families to prevent and control tobacco use, and should be a priority for both tobacco control and maternal and child health experts.


[Editorial] A risky business

In a world full of seemingly intractable problems, health-related and otherwise, knowing where to start or what to prioritise can be daunting. One of the principles by which to allocate scarce medical resources is to focus on the worst off—ie, the sickest. In a prevention context, this might translate to the most at risk. The diverse research articles in this month’s issue follow this philosophy.


Case Report of Two Cases of Fever, Rash, and Organ Involvement during the Treatment of Leprosy

by Hong Liu, Chuan Wang, Tongsheng Chu, Parimi Leela Rani, Debao Yu, Xi’an Fu, Mingfei Chen, Shumin Chen, Furen Zhang


Prevalence and Risk Factors for Echinococcal Infection in a Rural Area of Northern Chile: A…

by Gerardo Acosta-Jamett, Thomas Weitzel, Belgees Boufana, Claudia Adones, Andrea Bahamonde, Katia Abarca, Philip S. Craig, Ingrid Reiter-Owona Background Hydatidosis is a zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution caused by Echinococcus granulosus.


The Prawn Macrobrachium vollenhovenii in the Senegal River Basin: Towards Sustainable…

by Amit Savaya Alkalay, Ohad Rosen, Susanne H. Sokolow, Yacinthe P. W.


Epidemiology of Disappearing Plasmodium vivax Malaria: A Case Study in Rural Amazonia

by Susana Barbosa, Amanda B. Gozze, Nathália F. Lima, Camilla L.


Sporotrichosis: An Emerging Neglected Opportunistic Infection in HIV-Infected Patients in Rio…

by Dayvison Francis Saraiva Freitas, Antonio Carlos Francesconi do Valle, Margarete Bernardo Tavares da Silva, Dayse Pereira Campos, Marcelo Rosandiski Lyra, Rogerio Valls de Souza, Valdiléa Gonçalves Veloso, Rosely Maria Zancopé-Oliveira, Francisco Inácio Bastos, Maria Clara Gutierrez Galhardo Sporotrichosis associated with zoonotic transmission remains a relevant public health problem in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, affecting a large at-risk population, which includes HIV-infected individuals. We assessed patients co-infected by Sporothrix spp. and HIV over time in the context of an unabated sporotrichosis epidemic.


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