Globally, pneumonia remains the leading infectious cause of death in children younger than 5 years. Undernutrition, defined by wasting, stunting, and specific nutritional deficiencies, is associated with approximately half of all deaths in such children.1 Beyond having a direct impact on mortality, undernutrition increases the frequency and severity of pneumonia episodes, potentially representing a secondary immune deficiency that has not been well characterised.2,3 Undernutrition in a child with severe pneumonia requiring hospitalisation can also be associated with a diminished metabolic capacity to overcome the amplified physical and physiological demands of the illness, such as increased temperature, cardiac output, and work of breathing.
The war in Syria, now in its fourth year, is one of the bloodiest in recent times.
Special Article by CDC Director Dr. Tom Frieden in The New England Journal of Medicine on The Future of Public Health. Source: The Future of Public Read More
Objective To describe the Green House (GH) model of nursing home (NH) care, and examine how GH homes vary from the model, one another, and their founding (or legacy) NH.
Objective To examine the effects of potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) use on health care outcomes in elderly individuals using an instrumental variable (IV) approach.
Abstract This study is the first to examine the effects of medical marijuana laws (MMLs) on body weight, physical wellness, and exercise.
Background: Little is known about the interaction between socio-economic status and ‘protected characteristics’ in Scotland.
by The PLOS Medicine Editors
by Jacob Bor, Sydney Rosen, Natsayi Chimbindi, Noah Haber, Kobus Herbst, Tinofa Mutevedzi, Frank Tanser, Deenan Pillay, Till Bärnighausen Background Women have better patient outcomes in HIV care and treatment than men in sub-Saharan Africa. We assessed—at the population level—whether and to what extent mass HIV treatment is associated with changes in sex disparities in adult life expectancy, a summary metric of survival capturing mortality across the full cascade of HIV care. We also determined sex-specific trends in HIV mortality and the distribution of HIV-related deaths in men and women prior to and at each stage of the clinical cascade. Methods and Findings Data were collected on all deaths occurring from 2001 to 2011 in a large population-based surveillance cohort (52,964 women and 45,688 men, ages 15 y and older) in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Cause of death was ascertained by verbal autopsy (93% response rate)
by Arin Dutta, Catherine Barker, Ashley Kallarakal Background The World Health Organization (WHO) released revised guidelines in 2015 recommending that all people living with HIV, regardless of CD4 count, initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) upon diagnosis. However, few studies have projected the global resources needed for rapid scale-up of ART. Under the Health Policy Project, we conducted modeling analyses for 97 countries to estimate eligibility for and numbers on ART from 2015 to 2020, along with the facility-level financial resources required. We compared the estimated financial requirements to estimated funding available.
by Alexander C. Tsai, Mark J. Siedner
by David T. Williams, Sinéad M. Diviney, Aziz-ur-Rahman Niazi, Peter A.
by Ryan M Wallace, Hannah Reses, Richard Franka, Pierre Dilius, Natael Fenelon, Lillian Orciari, Melissa Etheart, Apollon Destine, Kelly Crowdis, Jesse D Blanton, Calvin Francisco, Fleurinord Ludder, Victor Del Rio Vilas, Joseph Haim, Max Millien The Republic of Haiti is one of only several countries in the Western Hemisphere in which canine rabies is still endemic. Estimation methods have predicted that 130 human deaths occur per year, yet existing surveillance mechanisms have detected few of these rabies cases. Likewise, canine rabies surveillance capacity has had only limited capacity, detecting only two rabid dogs per year, on average.
Background: District and sub-district pharmacist positions were created during health sector reform in South Africa.
Background: Even in high-income countries some population groups depend on food banks to support their food intake.
Background: In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the rising prevalence of overweight, obesity and non-communicable diseases co-exists with the high burden of under-nutrition.
Background: Attempted or non-fatal self-poisoning is common in Sri Lanka.