Tag Archives: diarrhea

Complementary Feeding and Diarrhea and Respiratory Infection Among HIV-Exposed Tanzanian…

Objective: To examine the association between complementary feeding and risks of diarrhea and acute respiratory infection (ARI) among HIV-exposed infants aged 6–24 months.

Posted in Aid, Aid & Development, Diahrreal Disease, General Global Health, HIV/AIDS, Infant & Child Health, Infectious Disease, Journal Watch, Women & Children | Also tagged , , | Comments closed

6 Pathogens Likely Responsible For 78% Of Childhood Diarrhea Cases, Study Shows

Humanosphere: Only 6 pathogens guilty for most childhood diarrhea, new study reveals Humanosphere writer and editor Joanne Lu discusses findings from “a new study that suggests vaccines and antibiotics just need to target six pathogens to tackle 78 percent of cases of childhood diarrhea, the second leading cause of death in children under five. ……More

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Diarrhea in Children under-five years of age in South Africa (1997-2014)

Objective To present evidence from available reliable published data on the prevalence, incidence and severity of diarrhoea in children aged under-five years in South Africa.

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Reflections on a year of malnutrition

Malnutrition is frustrating. I often sit in the office, analyzing data from our programs, and feel helpless. Children who stay the same height for two Read More

Posted in Aid & Development, Delivery, Diahrreal Disease, Environment, Equity & Access, Featured Content, General Global Health, Hub Originals, Hub Selects, Infant & Child Health, Infectious Disease, Malnutrition & Obesity, Maternal & Reproductive Health, Medications & Treatments, Noncommunicable Disease, Nutrition & Food Security, Policy & Systems, Poverty, Primary Care & Prevention, Research, Social, Women & Children | Also tagged , , | Comments closed

Effect of deploying community health assistants on appropriate treatment for diarrhea, malaria,…

Objective A critical shortage of human resources for health in Zambia remains a great challenge.

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Child diarrhoea and nutritional status in rural Rwanda: a cross-sectional study to explore…

Objective To explore associations of environmental and demographic factors with diarrhoea and nutritional status among children in Rusizi district, Rwanda.

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Shared toilets increase diarrhoea risk for children

Even sharing with just one or two other households poses a significant threat to the under-fives, warns study.

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Trends and risk factors for childhood diarrhea in sub-Saharan countries (1990–2013):…

Background: Diarrheal diseases are a major cause of child mortality and one of the main causes of medical consultation for children in sub-Saharan countries.

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India’s commitment to protect children from diarrhea just reached a new milestone

On March 26, 2016, India joined the growing number of countries that have introduced rotavirus vaccine into their national immunization programs. The Indian Minister for Health and Family Welfare, Mr. JP Nadda, launched the rotavirus vaccine through the Universal Immunisation Programme (UIP) in Bhubaneswar, Odisha. Mr.

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The true cost of vaccine-preventable diarrhea in Africa

Vaccines against diarrheal disease still have an enormous amount of untapped potential for Africa—for children’s lives, their ability to flourish, their families’ livelihoods, and their countries’ economies. read more

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Burden of community diarrhoea in developing countries

The Article by James Platts-Mills and colleagues (September, 2015),1 highlights the burden of diarrhoeal disease in young children in developing countries and also demonstrates the effect that seasonal variations have on multiple causative pathogens. Infectious gastroenteritis contributes significantly to the 1 billion episodes of diarrhoea and 3 million deaths in children under 5 years, and is the fifth leading cause of death worldwide.2

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Top 10 Toilet Tips!

Last week, we marked World Toilet Day 2015, focusing on the fact that 2.4 billion people around the world today lack access to proper sanitation. Especially in South Asia, there are huge disparities in access to toilets, clean water, and properly handled and prepared food. read more

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Private health care for diarrhea in Africa kills 20,000 kids annually

A nurse gives oral rehydration salts to a two-year-old in Sierra Leone. UNICEF Children in sub-Saharan Africa who suffer from diarrhea are receiving lifesaving treatment at a lower rate when visiting private hospitals as compared to public ones. Closing that gap would save an estimated 20,000 lives each year. When a child present signs of … Continue reading →

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Time to Take Hygiene Issues Seriously

I published the following opinion piece in The New Times on 21 May 2012.
Around the world, it is well understood that catastrophic medical expenditures are a leading cause of destitution, driving some families from stability into poverty and preventing others from pulling themselves up.
One of the most common causes of hospitalization and mortality for young children in Rwanda is diarrhea and associated digestive diseases, causing tremendous suffering among the most vulnerable and hindering national development. Many of all of these cases are the result of poor hygiene and inadequate sanitation, a set of issues that we have all the tools and knowledge to solve. Vision 2020 and the Millennium Development Goals, toward which Rwanda has made strong progress in recent years, identify improved hygiene as a top priority for very good reason.
Digestive diseases pose both immediate and long-term health risks to children and families in Rwanda. Not only do the acute symptoms of diarrhea and dehydration threaten the child’s health, but these can lead to malnutrition before long when the child is unable to eat. Acute malnutrition is compounded by severe diarrhea, and chronic malnutrition exacerbated by recurrent diarrhea can lead to developmental delays.
Diarrhea leads to more hospitalizations among children than any other individual cause, and is responsible for a significant portion of out-of-pocket expenditure by families in both rural and urban areas. While mutuelle de santé covers 90% of all medical costs for enrolled families, even the 10% contribution can add up very quickly with lengthy or repeated hospitalizations. Families have had to borrow and draw on help from neighbors in order to manage these expenses due to diarrhea, but sometimes this is not enough.
Through the payment of 100% of medical bills when families in Ubudehe category 1 and 2 are unable to pay, the government spends a significant amount of both the domestic and development budget to provide care for multiple hospitalizations for children with digestive diseases. This money should be used for the economic development of the nation – to build more hospitals in remote areas, to construct high quality schools to educate our youth, and to provide families with greater opportunities to build better lives for themselves and for the next generation.
Furthermore, the opportunity costs of having a parent accompany and remain with a child to the hospital are enormous. Other children who stay at home are often neglected (not by parental irresponsibility but because they must give their full attention to the sick child), placing them at risk for poor school attendance, malnutrition, and depression. Additionally, that parent cannot perform their usual income-generating activity, rendering their family more vulnerable to catastrophic medical expenditure and making it less likely they will have the resources to continue improving hygiene and sanitation at home, so all of their children are at even higher risk for future digestive diseases. A vicious cycle of poverty and disease is perpetuated, undermining development and trapping families in a state of constantly trying to respond to the next health or financial crisis.
Our most powerful tool in the struggle against digestive diseases among children in Rwanda would be a widespread change in mindset around the importance of better hygiene. The hygiene committees that already exist at the district and umudugudu levels should be sensitized around the threat poor hygiene poses to local and national development. Communities should be supervised by local leaders for the construction of adequate toilets that follow sanitation guidelines from the Ministry of Health. Families across the country must be remind by all of us at all occasions about the importance of washing hands after using the toilet and before cooking or eating. Each man, woman, and child must use potable water – whether from an improved water source or through boiling or filtering or using pharmaceutical. Every household should take pride in maintaining a clean home, with separate safe places for clothing, cooking, and eating. Finally, families must serve children food that is well prepared – not cooked too little sothat dangerous bacteria remain, but not so much as to remove important vitamins.
These actions are simple and urgent. The Ministry of Health and our colleagues across the Government Institutions are availing resources for continued scale up of behaviour change communication, improved water and sanitation infrastructure, and prevention and treatment of diarrhea (including the new rotavirus vaccine), but these will mean nothing if not accompanied by a major shift in day-to-day hygiene practices by the population. As a nation, we must stand together ready to confront poor hygiene as a serious but solvable threat to our development.

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